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Philippine president Duterte's drug war an 'utter failure', says vice-president

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Philippine president Duterte's drug war an 'utter failure', says vice-president

MANILA - President Rodrigo Duterte's brutal drug war is an utter failure three years on, despite a state-sanctioned terror campaign that has led to thousands of extrajudicial killings, Vice-President Leni Robredo said on Monday (Jan 6).

"It's crystal clear... that despite the thousands who were killed, and despite the huge sum and resources spent, not even 1 per cent of the total supply of shabu and the money generated from illegal drugs were seized," Ms Robredo, who briefly took over Mr Duterte's crackdown on the drug trade, said at a news briefing.

"If this were an exam," she said, "the government's score would be 1 out of 100."

Her criticism drew a swift response from Mr Duterte's spokesman.

"It's a dud. She didn't say anything new... What was a failure was her stint (as drugs czar)," Mr Salvador Panelo told reporters. "I think she just wants to be relevant."

Citing official records, Ms Robredo said drug enforcement agents seized on average 1,000kg of shabu, or crystal methamphetamine, out of over 156,000kg circulating across the country each year.

An anti-money laundering body, meanwhile, froze just 1.4 billion pesos (S$37 million) out of an estimated 1.3 trillion pesos worth of drug money in circulation in 2016 and 2017.

Ms Robredo told reporters on Monday she gathered the information when she led the multi-agency body tasked to oversee Mr Duterte's controversial drug war.

In dismissing these numbers, Mr Panelo said he would let the government's drug enforcement agencies dispute Ms Robredo's report.

Mr Duterte had dared Ms Robredo to prove she could do a better job after she said in an interview that his drug war was "not working". Too many people had been killed in the crackdown, and still the problem persisted, she said.

Mr Duterte installed her as co-chair of the Inter-Agency Committee on Anti-Illegal Drugs on Nov 5 last year, but fired her just 18 days later.

During her brief stint, Ms Robredo met drug enforcement agents from the United States and the United Nations to ask them how they thought the anti-drug campaign could be refined and made less "anti-poor".

Later, she asked for a list of high-value targets in the drug war, after naming China as a major source of narcotics.

All this apparently did not sit well with Mr Duterte.

In short order, he called her a "scatterbrain", and warned her that she was "treading on dangerous ground" if she insisted on discussing the anti-drug campaign with "outsiders".

He accused her of "overreaching" and of "grandstanding" to push her presidential ambition, and said flatly that he could not trust her because she heads the opposition. The president and vice-president are elected separately in the Philippines.

On Monday, Ms Robredo said Mr Duterte's drug war was failing because it was not targeting big-time drug suppliers.

It was instead aimed at sowing fear in the country's poorest communities via drug raids that often led to suspects getting killed for purportedly fighting back.

Close to 6,000 mostly petty drug dealers and users have been killed in Mr Duterte's drug war after allegedly resisting arrest.

Human rights groups have cited a higher death toll and accused some policemen of killing unarmed suspects based on flimsy evidence and altering crime scenes to make it look like the suspects fought back violently.

"(The drug war) failed because they focused on street-level enforcement... Even if they go on drug raids every day, if they are not constricting supply, going after big suppliers, the problem won't end," Ms Robredo said.

But Mr Panelo contended that while Mr Duterte had yet to deliver on his promise to lick the drug menace, "there are already many drug-free districts (and) we have dismantled many drug factories".

"How can you say it's a failure?"


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    LIST: Robredo's drug war recommendations

    Her recommendations, detailed in a 40-page report, were based on her findings during her short stint as the co-chair of the Inter-Agency Committee Against Illegal Drugs, the government's multi-clustered agency fighting drug trafficking and use of illegal drugs in the country.

    Below are her main recommendations to the government to create "strong policies and synchronized programs."

    1. Maximize ICAD by designating the Dangerous Drugs Board as lead

    Robredo proposed moving the leadership from the Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency to the Dangerous Drugs Board. She said DDB is the policy-making and strategy-formulating body in the planning and formulation of policies and programs on drug prevention and control. She said the current situation of PDEA as lead gives a "lopsided" priority to law enforcement.

    She also urged proactive and balanced participation from the enforcement, justice, advocacy, and rehabilitation and reintegration clusters of ICAD.

    Robredo suggested adding relevant private sectors and local government representatives members as part of ICAD.

    2. Establish accurate and updated baseline data on the number of drug users, pushers

    The Vice President hit Duterte's and government agencies' differing data of the number of drug users in the country. Government data shows around 6,000 deaths in anti-illegal drugs operations, a figure that local and international human rights groups believe is just the tip of the iceberg. She said the government should update the list in order to carry out a successful, evidence-based and data-driven campaign against illegal drugs.

    3. Scrap "Oplan Tokhang," focus on arrest of drug lords

    She recommended the abandonment of the flagship "Oplan Tokhang" campaign, where authorities visit suspected drug users’ homes and ask them to stop using illegal drugs. She said this term now has a negative connotation for its association with the deaths of drug suspects allegedly at the hands of the police, and should be replaced by a "reinvigorated policy" that ensures accountability and transparency. She said the PNP and other law enforcement agencies should also focus on curtailing the supply and trade of illegal drug.

    Robredo also criticized the government's "disproportionate" focus on arresting street-level users and pushers compared to jailing and persecuting high-profile drug lords and drug suppliers.

    "Kung gusto talaga nating tapusin ang salot ng iligal na droga, ang malalaking supplier, at hindi lang ang maliliit na pusher, ang kailangan nating habulin," she said in her speech.

    The drug war has been tagged by rights groups as anti-poor because most of the recorded deaths are of small-time drug users and peddlers, while drug lords roam free.

    She added that the entire Project Tokhang of the Philippine National Police should be revamped to eliminate potential abuse of police officers.

    4. Separate users and pushers in processing arrests

    Robredo said the PDEA, PNP, Interior Department, Health Department, and the Bureau of Jail Management and Penology should implement stricter measures to delineate users from pushers. She said lumping them together in jail only creates a wider drug network.

    There should be a uniform process for tracking all subsequent actions and interventions regarding those who surrendered or were arrested, she added.

    5. Institute evidence-based drug prevention programs

    She said the proliferation of illegal drugs is rooted in poverty, so government should create programs that target both the poverty-stricken and drug-infested areas.

    Robredo also told the administration to realign the budget of law enforcement to drug rehabilitation. She noted the "imbalance" in the budget. As an example, she said that only ₱1.24 billion was allotted to the DOH and DILG for rehabilitation, while law enforcement agencies were given ₱11.40 billion — 89 percent more than the amount for helping drug users heal.

    6. Strengthen the role of AMLC

    The Vice President said the Anti-Money Laundering Council plays a crucial role in stopping the flow of illegal drugs in the country. She said the tecnhical expertise of the council in the field of financial surveillance can be tapped to intercept money that funds the supply and trafficking of drug syndicates.

    Despite the bevy of solutions proposed by Robredo, the Duterte administration refused to heed them.

    Presidential spokesperson Salvador Panelo said she is not in the position to give recommendations on how to conduct the drug war because she's an outsider — despite the fact that she held the post for 19 days.

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    Duterte admits drug situation in the country has ‘worsened’

    The country might end up like a Mexico controlled by drug cartels if the government will not finish off the drug traffickers and their cohorts, President Duterte declared last Sunday.

    The President admitted the country’s drug situation has “worsened,” while the police may already be “at the brink of surrendering” following the recent shipments of illegal drugs being smuggled in the country.

    “You can see the headlines — every day billions worth of drugs are entering the country. Look at the main screen and the crawler, the running news at the bottom. It’s always about drugs, drugs, and drugs,” he said during his visit to Cagayan de Oro City last Sunday.

    “In the end, we will be like Mexico. We will be controlled by drug cartels. The Sinaloa has already entered the country and that is why drugs are being thrown in the Pacific. The same is happening in the West,” he added.

    Duterte noted that the drug shipment worth P1 billion recently seized by authorities was probably just a diversion by the traffickers. He said there might be probably other drug shipments being smuggled into the country amid its porous borders.

    “Things have worsened. My policemen are at the brink of surrendering. Everyday — don’t believe that it’s one billion. The next day there will be another 1. 3 billion. That’s just an excuse. That’s a bait,” he said.

    “Actually there are other billions coming in. The Philippines is contiguous, island for island. There are seven thousand islands. Just choose where you want to land,” he said.

    The President has renewed his resolve to combat the illegal drug trade, saying he will not allow the drug traffickers to destroy the nation. “If you destroy my country, I will kill you. You can be sure of that,” he warned.

    He maintained that the war on drugs would continue despite criticisms about alleged abuses from some groups. “When I became President, I said I don’t give a ***** about human rights,” he said.

    The Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency (PDEA) recently seized P1.8-billion worth of shabu at the Manila port. The illegal drugs wrapped inside tea packages reportedly came from Vietnam.

    Authorities earlier raided a shabu laboratory in Alabang, Muntinlupa and seized 148 kilograms of shabu worth P1.1 billion.

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    U.P. statistics professor: Robredo computed right in drug war report

    The Philippine National Police says Vice President Leni Robredo's computations are 'not even mathematically acceptable.' A statistician says otherwise.

    MANILA, Philippines – Many national government officials have protested Vice President Leni Robredo's searing report on the Duterte administration's campaign against illegal drugs, saying her criticism of the supposed failure was based on a wrong computation of government data.

    Robredo called the campaign a “failure” based on the police’s estimate that drug addicts consume 3 tons of shabu every week across the country, or equal to about 156,000 kilos every year, yet the Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency was able to seize just 1,344 kilos from January to October 2019.

    Presidential Spokesman Salvador Panelo said “her computation is wrong.” Philippine National Police (PNP) officer-in-charge Lieutenant General Archie Gamboa said her comparison of the figures was “not even mathematically acceptable.”

    So who got it right?

    University of the Philippines statistics professor Peter Cayton told Rappler that Robredo’s computations and comparisons were correct.

    “Generally, it is okay to use the estimated value in comparison to actual seizures,” Cayton told Rappler in a text message.

    The administration officials, meanwhile, have offered little to no explanation as to why Robredo’s findings were wrong. When they speak, they don't address the issue.

    “Remember, that is our estimate, we did not say that that is the amount of drugs in the streets. It’s just an estimate on the kind of convertation (sic) that we are going to make, and it is only a theoretical assumption,” Gamboa said in a briefing on Tuesday.

    President Rodrigo Duterte, when asked for comment on the Vice President's report, simply went for the ad hominem, calling her a “colossal blunder.”

    What Robredo might have gotten wrong: According to Cayton, there is one possible major caveat in Robredo’s findings: where she got the data.

    “If the estimate is unreliable, it is not safe to use it,” Cayton said, noting that law enforcers generate unreliable data on the anti-drug campaign.

    The data came from the PNP itself, with the estimate of the weekly consumption of illegal drugs at 3 tons a week coming from Colonel Romeo Caramat Jr, the head of the PNP’s Drug Enforcement Group (DEG).

    “In 2002, 10% of our population was affected by drugs so [it is a] safe or modest estimate if we have 3 million users in our country, the minimum sup­ply demand of drugs is 3 tons per week, 3,000 kilos per week,” Caramat said, as quoted by the Manila Bulletin on November 28, 2019.

    If the estimate came from 2002, the numbers would already be outdated. Rappler sought Caramat for clarification, but he has not replied. A PNP DEG official Rappler consulted said the figure was still updated: they estimate that there are 3 million drug users in the country and that each of them consumes at least 1 gram a week.

    They initially used 4 million as an estimate, echoing President Duterte’s questionable approximation, but the DEG official said they adjusted the figure to 3 million to account for the reduced number of users since the anti-drug campaign aggressively arrested users.

    The estimate that each drug user consumed one gram of illegal drugs a week, the official said, came from the PDEA. Sought for clarification, PDEA spokesman Derrick Carreon said they have to double-check with their experts and records before confirming the estimate.

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    Findings of Leni Robredo’s drug war report are based on government data

    Supporters of the administration raised doubts over the credibility of Vice President Leni Robredo‘s report on the drug war even if the findings and numbers were acquired from government agencies. She also included suggestions for the anti-narcotics campaign to improve.

    Robredo described the illegal drug war a “massive failure” in her much-anticipated report which she gathered during her short stint as co-chair of the Inter-agency Committee on Anti-Illegal Drugs (ICAD).

    Robredo’s work with the committee was cut short when President Rodrigo Duterte fired her in November last year, which was barely a month before she accepted the position he offered out of whim.

    Supporters of the administration decried that the data she cited ran counter to what the Philippine National Police and the local officials have presented to the public, that is, the number of illegal drug surrenderers and declared drug-free locations.

    Summary of the report

    Robredo said she’s giving the drug war a score of 1% out of 100% based on her findings in the 40-page report.

    “If you liken it to an exam, the government’s score is one out of 100,” Robredo said.

    “The campaign against illegal drugs has many aspects, but almost the entire funds were poured into neutralizing small-time pushers and users. They forgot to look into the aspect on where the bulk of drugs that victimize the youth and our citizens are coming from,” she added.

    Poor results on illegal drug seizure

    The PNP-Drug Enforcement Group (PDEA) was only able to haul 1,344.87 kilograms in the whole of 2019 out of the approximately 3,000 kilograms of shabu worth P25 billion consumed per week, the report said, citing data from the PNP-PDEA.

    This was lower than the 1,053.91 kilograms seized in 2017 and 785.31 kilograms in 2018.

    She also cited data from the Anti-Money Laundering Council showing P1.4 billion worth of frozen drug money in 2017 and 2018.

    Despite the seemingly large figure, this is still meager next to the P1.3 trillion in yearly consumption in the illegal drug trade.

    Cluttered data

    Robredo also criticized the lack of common and reliable baseline data on the number of drug dependents in the country.

    There’s also no uniform or standard process for monitoring the actions and interventions performed for the drug users who surrendered and have been arrested.

    For example, more than 1.2 million users had surrendered and 300,000 more had been arrested in police operations since 2016.

    If there are 4 million estimated drug users and pushers across the country, it means there are 2.5 million users and pushers left.

    The PNP, moreover, said that around 6,000 Filipinos have been killed since the bloody campaign started in 2016.

    New York-based Human Rights Watch, meanwhile, pegged the number of deaths in the drug war at around 12,000 in its 2018 World Report.

    Vague purpose of the ICAD

    The vice president also recommended that the chairmanship of ICAD be transferred from the PDEA to the Dangerous Drugs Board.

    “I recommend the transfer of the ICAD chairmanship to the DDB. If the DDB leads the ICAD, we can expect a balanced campaign and all aspects will be addressed,” Robredo said.

    Prior to her dismissal from the post, Robredo was not provided access to confidential information related to the drug war and national security despite her being entitled to it.

    Instead, she met with officials of the United States and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, which consequently earned the ire of Duterte and causing her to be removed from the ICAD.

    Government reacts

    Malacañang dismissed the report, particularly Robredo’s conclusion, as worthless or a “dud.”

    “She didn’t say anything new. There’s nothing new in what she said,” presidential spokesperson Salvador Panelo said.

    PDEA chief Aaron Aquino criticized this as a political attack against the president, noting that she only worked at the committee for 18 days.

    Sen. Ronald dela Rosa, former PNP chief who first led the police operations on illegal drugs called “Oplan Tokhang,” likewise viewed this as a putting the government in a negative light.

    “Where did she get her data? Or maybe she just chose the data that puts the government in a bad light and ignored the data that makes the government’s image look good,” Dela Rosa said.

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    Duterte admits drug problem won’t end under his watch

    President Rodrigo Duterte on Tuesday admitted that the illegal drugs problem will not end under his watch.

    “I’m tired, and I think I cannot fulfill my promise of ending all these problems,” a seemingly helpless Duterte said during a speech at the launch of “Pilipinas Angat Lahat” program at Malacañang.

    “Drugs will not end at the end of my term. It might just be worsened,” he said.

    This statement was in stark contrast to his campaign bravado that he will end drugs and criminality within in three to six months after assumption into office.

    Duterte made the remark as he admitted that he was thinking of stepping down from power as corrupt activities continues to be orchestrated under his administration.

    “I said I will try to stop corruption, which I’m doing [now]. And still I cannot succeed even beyond my term,” Duterte said.

    “I told you that I will go after drugs and I warned everybody because… what used to be millions of transactions worth, it’s now billions,” he added.

    Meanwhile, the chief executive dismissed as “pure speculation” the Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency’s (PDEA) claim that P6.8 billion worth of shabu (crystal meth) may have slipped into the country.

    ” … But they opened it, there was none. It was pure speculation. They were assuming that for those metal, magnetic — contain…there was nothing there,” Duterte said.

    “And they suspected and they also presumed that is was full of shabu. And they just made an assumption of the price. But there was really none and I am not convinced,” he added.

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    edited February 8

    ‘Shock and awe’ has failed in drug war – PNP anti-drugs chief

    MANILA - Police Brigadier General Romeo Caramat oversaw the bloodiest day in the blood-soaked war on drugs in the Philippines – 32 people killed in 24 hours in Bulacan where he was police chief in 2017.

    Now the head of Philippine National Police-Drug Enforcement Group, Caramat said that the ultra-violent approach to curbing illicit drugs had not been effective.

    "Shock and awe definitely did not work," he told Reuters in an interview, speaking out for the first time on the issue. "Drug supply is still rampant."

    Caramat said the volume of crime had decreased as a result of the drug war, but users could still buy illegal drugs "any time, anywhere" in the Philippines.

    He said he now favored a new strategy. Rather than quickly arresting or killing low-level pushers and couriers, he wants to put them under surveillance in the hope they lead police to "big drug bosses."

    Three and a half years after President Rodrigo Duterte launched a war on drugs in the Philippines with a call to kill addicts and traffickers, his signature policy has failed in many key objectives, according to police officers, health professionals, and government officials.

    Duterte's spokesman, Salvador Panelo, did not respond to requests for comment on Caramat's statements. But in a statement on Jan. 6 responding to a request from Reuters for comment on the anti-drug campaign, Panelo said "we are winning the war on drugs".

    Duterte, however, has repeatedly said in recent speeches and interviews that the anti-drugs campaign has fallen short, blaming endemic corruption for undermining enforcement and the absence of a death penalty for failing to deter crime.

    Critics say that problems with the drug war run deeper, pointing to a failure to target high-level drug traffickers, cut the supply of drugs and invest in rehabilitation.

    "Heavy suppression efforts marked by extra-judicial killings and street arrests were not going to slow down demand," said Jeremy Douglas, the Southeast Asia and Pacific representative for the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) in Bangkok.

    "There has to be a focus on prevention and public health, coupled with intelligent policing that takes on transnational crime."

    Shabu deluge

    Caramat's criticism of the tactics that marked his tenure as Bulacan province's police chief is remarkable given the nationwide fame he enjoyed for the killings, and the rapid promotions that followed.

    After news emerged of the one-day death count in Bulacan in Aug. 2017, local media reported Duterte saying: "Let's kill another 32 every day. Maybe we can reduce what ails this country."

    Caramat estimates "hundreds" died in Bulacan when he was police chief. The Philippines government says 5,532 people have been killed in anti-drug police operations nationwide since mid-2016.

    Human rights groups suspect the nationwide death toll is much higher. Amnesty International said in a report last June that "evidence points to many thousands more killed by unknown armed persons with likely links to the police".

    Caramat says that those killed on his watch violently resisted arrest. But he agrees with critics that the anti-drugs strategy has mostly targeted low-level operatives.

    "For almost three years, we are arresting the street pusher or the courier. After we have arrested the drug courier, we stopped," he said in the interview, conducted in December.

    After a brief pause when the drug war was declared, transnational crime groups have flooded the country with crystal meth - the most popular illegal drug in the Philippines, known locally as shabu, according to law enforcement officers, government officials and experts.

    Vice President Leni Robredo, a political rival of Duterte who was appointed "drugs tsar" last year but fired 18 days later for "failing to introduce new measures" among other alleged shortcomings, said in a report handed to the president last month that the inability to constrict the supply of illicit drugs had been a "massive failure".

    The report added that "attention and resources were disproportionately focused on street-level enforcement". After being fired, Robredo said that the government was "afraid of what I might discover".

    Panelo, the president's spokesman, criticized Robredo's "baseless extrapolations" on drug supply at the time, saying that drug lords had been "neutralized" and that the crime rate had fallen.

    "Close to eight out of 10 Filipinos are satisfied with the national administration's campaign against illegal drugs," Panelo said.

    A survey by Social Weather Stations, a Filipino polling group, in June found 82% of those surveyed were satisfied with the anti-drug campaign.

    According to figures provided by the Philippines to the UNODC, crystal meth seizures have climbed in the past year and were on track to more than double in 2019.

    However, the average retail price for meth, at $136 per gram, is below the $164 it cost when the war on drugs began in 2016, according to the figures. The cheaper prices, said the UNODC's Douglas, suggests that far more of the drug is reaching the streets than is being stopped.

    A $50 million drug bust in November highlighted the oversupply, according to Caramat. More than 370 kilograms of crystal meth was allegedly found stacked in a wardrobe in a flat rented by a suspected Chinese drug trafficker.

    But, said Caramat, "it turned out that was just the leftovers". On the trafficker's phone were pictures of tonnes of meth stored elsewhere in the Philippines, he said.

    Rehab woes

    Efforts to cut demand for drugs, including treatment and counseling for the country's estimated 1.3 million registered addicts, have also been hampered by lack of funding and poor organization, according to analysts and officials interviewed by Reuters.

    The limitations of those efforts were highlighted by the small number of patients being treated at the Mega Drug Abuse Treatment and Rehabilitation Center, in Nueva Ecija, some 100 kilometers north of Manila during a recent visit by Reuters.

    Residents rise early at 4.30 a.m., receive medication and counseling, receive medication and counseling, interspersed with prayer, meals and Zumba classes that last until 8.30 p.m.

    But while it was built to house 10,000 addicts, the facility has seen just 2,085 severe drug addicts complete the program over three-and-a-half years, according to a PowerPoint presentation from the center reviewed by Reuters.

    Government figures show that in-patient treatment at rehabilitation centers nationwide dropped from 5,648 in 2016 to 5,477 in 2018.

    With minimal funding allocated to rehabilitation, most addicts have been unable to access even community-based, out-patient programs, officials and health workers say. Those that get access usually just listen to a lecture or watch a video.

    "We were caught with our pants down when the war on drugs started," said Benjamin Reyes, chairman of the drug reduction committee of the Philippines Dangerous Drugs Board, a government agency. Reyes added that rehabilitation was now a priority for the government and that funding was set to rise this year.

    Shift in strategy?

    Government figures show that 500 people were killed in the drug war last year, which compares with 3,000 killed in the first year of the campaign.

    But rights activists are skeptical that a major shift in the anti-drug strategy is in the works.

    "It looks like the numbers are falling but data from government can't be trusted because they've been manipulating or massaging the figures," said Carlos Conde, Philippines researcher with Human Rights Watch. Reuters couldn't independently confirm this.

    As recently as November, Duterte spoke of killing "drug personalities" and throwing their bodies into Manila Bay.

    In December, the Philippines' new police chief, Lieutenant General Archie Gamboa, Caramat's superior, was quoted in the Philippine Star newspaper saying that police had been too tolerant combating drug offenders and urged officers to "neutralize" them if they felt under threat. Gamboa did not respond to a request for comment.

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  • hsusonhsuson Member PEx Influencer ⭐⭐⭐
    The goverment people and the police are so Corrupt.

    How will you ever win the drug war?

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