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# Pricing | Marketing 4P

PEx Veteran ⭐⭐
edited March 2019 #1

Simply, pricing methods are a way to determine how a product will be priced. The following are the most common methods adopted to simplify the process of setting the price of products and services:

• PEx Veteran ⭐⭐
Cost-plus pricing

This method allows you to cover all direct cost and then generate a profit. For example, you want a 20 percent profit from 100 units of a product that cost you PhP 1,000.00. You should sell the product for PhP 12.00.

Cost-based pricing

This method uses unit costs of direct and indirect costs to determine the price. The cost-based pricing formula is [(VC x units sold) + FC = price per unit x units sold] x (100 + profit margin, expressed in percentage).

Let us say your variable cost is PhP 30.00; fixed cost, PhP 500.00; units sold, 100; and target profit, 20 percent. Using the formula, your selling price must then be PhP 42.00 per unit, to cover your cost and make a 20 percent profit.

Note that the price per unit, before adding the profit margin, is also the break-even point. The selling price must be PhP 42.00 to cover costs and make a 20-percent profit.

Percent food cost pricing

This is a method based on the theory that food cost makes up about 40 percent of the product price. Using this method, simply multiply the food cost by 2.5 (40 percent x 2.5 = 100 percent).

Contribution pricing

This method allows you to cover all direct cost (per product), and also allows a contribution toward indirect cost and profit. Let us say your indirect cost amount to PhP 1,000.00; desired profit, 30 percent (PhP 300.00); and contribution of PhP 20.00.
The formula to follows is (IC + profit) / contribution = units to sell. Using this formula, you need to sell 65 units of the product to cover indirect costs and make a PhP 300.00 profit.

Working-back method

This method is most useful for small businesses as it computes for the total costs and desired profits first. Use this formula: (total costs + profit) / units sold = price per unit.

Let's say your total cost is PhP 1,000.00; units sold, 100; and desired profit is 50 percent (PHP 500.00). Your price per unit would be PhP 15.00. If this turns out to be higher than the price offered by your competitor, offer something more to the consumer to compensate for the higher price (i.e. free pick-up or delivery).
• PExer
Greetings!

I'm currently making a business plan for my proposed grocery and hardware business.

I would like to ask po sana kung paano pinapatungan ng presyo ang mga produkto mula sa wholesaler?
I already have identified the "possible costs", "possible direct and indirect expenses".

I would like to ask po sana, kasi, in this way, I could make a price, that would be highly competitive, depending on the current price of goods in my area, and be able to determine certain level of mark up depending on a certain law of demand and supply.

Sana po matulungan niyo po ako in my business plan.