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PHOTOS: FEU Takes Care of UP in 3 Sets

The FEU Lady Tamaraws easily dispatched the UP Lady Maroons in a three-set victory, 25-14, 26-24, 25-20

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REVIEW: The Hunger Games: Mockingjay - Part 1

It feels forced and stretched. But hey, it's still Mockingjay. Check out our full review here!

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PHOTOS: Lady Spikers Win in Opening Tiff

The DLSU Lady Spikers opened their campaign with an impressive four-set win over the Adamson Lady Falcons, 25-23, 24-26, 25-14, 25-17.

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FEATURE: BasketBros: PBA's Best Buddies

We take a look at twelve couples who have formed relationships like real life brothers. Meet our BasketBros!

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  1. #41
    Lesson no. 21: Explaining the Wrongly Held Notion of Philippine economic social class
    by Prof. Misskopinas

    Originally Posted by misskopinas
    Hi Kapungsod...bago tayo bumalik sa napakaganda nating talakayan, I just want to share the psychosocial reasons behind 'bragging' and 'self-aggrandiosement' - ang pagbuhat sa sariling bangko.

    Bago muna yan, define muna natin ang social class. Contrary sa isipan ng lahat na the word 'class' when talking about society means people na 'mas mataas' sa yo, ang tunay na ibig sabihin ng class eh category lang - thats it, it is just a pigeonhole where certain people who have certain attributes belong to. So pag sinabi mo - Upper class, middle class, lower class, ibig sabihin neto eh socio-economic indicators kung saan nabibilang ang mga tao. Ang upper class sa Pinas eh konti lang, pumapalo sa 5-8% ng population. Ang middle class eh konti lang ang nasa 'upper-middle' - eto ang mga edukado at may posisyon tulad ng entrepreneurs at ang bulk ng middle class - guro, government employees, teacher, pulis, empeyadong may job security - sila sana ang 'bulk market' ng companies - sila ang bumibili ng mass products. Pero dahil ang ating mga propseyunal ay hindi kataasan ang sueldo (ang sueldo ng clerk sa Provincial office eh mas maliit pa sa Php 500/night na kita ng mambabalut sa Cubao), ang ating lower o 'bulk' middle class eh sadya ring kasama sa label ng 'working class' kung saan ang working class o lower class ay mostly blue collar at pink collar (mananahi, construction worker, tagatinda ng isda sa palengke) - ang median income dito ay nasa Php 100,000/annum. Sadly, ang ating guro, pulis at mga nurses din ay ganito ang median income kung kayat iba ang classification ng Pinas sa 'social class' na siyang bulk market. Sa America - eto ang middle class. Sa atin - eto ang working class - mix ng propesyunal, semi-professional, blue clollar, pink collar, OFWs at small-time entrepreneurs. So, sa madaling salita, sa Pinas, ang equivalent ng 'American Middle Class' in terms of its 'function' in society being the main consumers of the market (kebale ang class na eto ay ang pinakamarami at ang kanilang collective income ang nagpapatakbo sa ekonomiya) - ay ang ating 'Working class'.

    Ngayon, sa taas, I discussed 'Merton Classification according to economic capacity' pero merong 'old school' na sa panahon ng kastila, ang income ng mangbabalut ay di papalo sa income ng guro. So noong panahon na yun, ang upper eh mas may pera at mas may edukasyon, breeding at power of authority, at si Juan, na nagkakaingin lang eh wala. Dati ang A, B, C, D & E ay relevant dahil ang trabaho ay nagiindicate ng perang nakikinata mo, pero dahil ang upper class ngayon eh hindi lamang mga haciendero (in terms of income) kundi mga entrepreneurs at ibang OFWs na rin (meron akong kaibigan na Nanny ng mga anak na nagmamay-ari ng Harrod's at ang kanyang suweldo kada taon ay pumpalo sa GBP 120,000/annum or about 9 million pesos - yaya lang yun ha),etong classification na upper or lower according to profession eh 'jumbled na rin'.

    Ngayon, ang batayan ng Survey firm na Nielsen eh hindi 'propesyun', ang batayan nila ay income per annum sa paglabel ng 'types of household'. Dito nagkakaiba ang TNS, eto ang kadahilanan bakit ang sinasabi ng ABS ay ang mga taong nanonood sa kanila ay may 'class'. Sinasama nila sa 'family categorization system' hindi lang ang income kundi ang 'propesyun' at social standing. I am not saying this is not good, it is just an explanation of a system.

    Ngayon, sa Pinas, ang ating underclass for TNS (eto ang mangbabalut - C,D,E for example) eh siya ring mga taong kalevel ang ating mga guro at pulis sa kita kaya't nasa working class na rin silang lahat. There was a TV program reported by Jessica Soho that the mambabalut in Mega Manila earns from 300-600/night equivalent to the salary of a police officer and teacher in the median band. The fish vendor in balintawak who is a small-scale entrepreneur earns more from 500-800/day. Ang ating taxi drivers - kumikita din ng between 500-1000 kaya kadalasan mas mataas pa ang suweldo ng taxi driver lalo na sa Pasko kesa sa ating mga propesyunal.

    So, if a station's captured market belongs to the sector of the Philippine working class (combination of B,C,D & E) - then they have the greatest reach in terms of introducing new products and ideas to the market - ang mga taong namimili ng kanilang produkto. So please, enough of these class-thing already. If certain stations have upper class viewing them - then well and good. but this is a small market and they dont buy everyday, all the time. The products they buy have small bulk. Halimbawa - bumili man sila ng kotse kasi kaya nila, paisa-isa lang. Pero sa working class, bumili man sila ng sardinas, nasa milyung katao ang pumapalo at eto ang nagpapayaman sa mga kampanya. I hope this should be the end of it.

  2. #42
    Lesson no. 22: On Early Sexual Practices & the Christian 'Sexual Shame'
    by Prof. Misskopinas

    Originally Posted by misskopinas
    Hi Kataas-Taasang Bb. Suzette!

    I find that showing this aspect of our then-society is very much refreshing because it attempts to truly mirror how people viewed sexual relations and procreation back then...

    Hi Gem77 - wala pa eto ...When we were studying old documents noong nagaaral kami ng Phil. History before the 1500's nasa poetry yan ng mga Igorot kung paano pagsabaying i-impregnate ang dalawang babae sa isang gabi - the point is to get as many women pregnant as possible kasi di ba, back then the life expectancy is really low...so the more women you get pregnant, the more chances you have of getting a child that will survive beyond childhood. Kasi di ba, kung mas marami kang anak mas maraming makakatulong sayo sa bukid at sa pakikipagdigma? I was surprised kahit iilang verses lang yun ng epic kasi very graphic siya.

    Ang reaksiyon ng prayle na nirecord eto eh masyadong shocked because the friar comes from a 'Christian' prespective. Iba ang ethics, morals at norms ng Animist cultures...For them, its normal. walang malisya ang sekswalidad, its just a fact of life. Pero makikita naman natin na importante then ang love at pagkakaroon ng bana (husband)/asawa(wife) - relasyong may commitment para sa personal na rason (yun nga, love), political (halimbawa, Datu/Dian) at social-economic (by marrying the woman effectively belongs to the husband and he must provide while she must assist and follow and bear as many children as possible).

    Ang ating pagiging conservative sa usaping sekswal ay dala ng mga Kastila at ng kristianismo.Ang 'shame' na inaasociate sa sexuality ay hindi 'normal' sa ating mga ninuno. Sexuality-sins were created positions and ideas by the early Christian Churches...Kasi, di ba sa Ecumenical Council ng Nicea (Dito nagmula sa meeting na eto ng lider ng early Christian Church ang panalangin na 'I Believe in God....') ang debate ay tungkol sa sdeparation ng Body and Spirit? Para sa kanila, ang Body ay 'bad' at ang spirit ay 'Good'. So lahat ng nais ng body - food, water, sex even love (kahit hindi eto physiological pero nageemanate pa rin sa body ang 'act of love') ay nagiging 'bad'. Kaya nga ang mother ni Jesus di ba 'Virgin' Mary? Pananaw eto na hindi Romano (kasi ang Romans ang rival ng Christians dahil bago pa naging Kristiano si Emperor Constantine ng Holy Roman Empire - ang pinaggagalingan ng 'Konstantino' sa Fiesta de Mayo) at ang mga Romano ay free sa kaning sexuality sa ganung dahilan din ng ating mga ninuno...so the Christian opposition is sexuality must be 'guarded' kasi it brings so many troubles (isipin mo if priests were allowed to have sexual relations with so many nuns....anggulo di ba? Do not think of the 'moral aspect' kasi back then it does not apply, isipin mo lang ang function - imagine all the jealous priests, nuns, lovers, church members, elders - magpapatayan sila, bubuwagin nila ang Simbahan). Eto ang problema noong 86 CE [AD] ni Pope Siricius to the point na lahat ng miyembro ng simbahan na importante ang posisyun, kahit hindi sila pari ay Pinagbawalan niyang magkaroon ng sexual relations KAHIT KANINO, maging sa asawa nila. Di nagwork at maraming nagalsa balutan, so balik ulit sa dating gawa.

    Wala etong pinagkaiba sa regulated sexuality beliefs ng Judaic religions tulad ng Islam at Judaism...Bakit? Dahil noong araw sa ancient Mesopotamia, ang mga babae ay properties at minsan sila ang ginagawang pambayad ng pamilya. So di puedeng magkaanak kahit kani-kanino lang....dapat pinagiisipan at pinipili.So in an essence ang Sexual Morals ng Kristiayano ay rooted sa sexual Morals ng mga Judaic-family of beliefs.

    So, ang pagpapalabas sa uri ng sekswalidad noong panahon ay tama lamang - sapagkat eto ang pagkikila sa sekswalidad noong unang panahon ng ating mga Animist na ninuno bago pa man tayo pinuwersang maging Kristiano at maniwala sa Kristianismo ng mga kastila.

    Misskopinas (lecture mode)
    Lesson no. 23: Barang
    by Prof. Misskopinas

    Originally Posted by misskopinas
    I wont be surprised...Barang is actually a kind of beetle na ginagamit ng evil na babaylan or shaman - kaya ginbarang or binarang yung tawag...Kasi sa Siquijor where ang pagbabarang ay rich pa din ang practice to this day, ang bettle na 'barang' refers to the fungus bettle or Alphitobius laevigatus...Usually, pag ang tao nagkakasakit or namatay, they appear coming either from the flesh or around in the vicinity dahil sila and 'black magic' na sugu ng barang para tapusin ang utus niya....Siquijor, apparently is far more dangerous than Capiz (land of Aswang,Tiktik or wakwak)...And siquijor is right beside Cebu and Bohol...so, I think Rajah M...meron kang mambabarang sa iyong entourage....perhaps your Babaylan can also do 'Barang', puede mo pabarang si Lamitan if you like, or yung anak ng Datu na nagdemand na maging asawa si amaya sa Ep kanina...pede rin mga hayohay diyan o, sa taas at sa susunod pa...
    Lesson no. 24: Shaman and Babaylan
    by Prof. Misskopinas

    Originally Posted by misskopinas
    Ang shaman eh equivalent word lang yan kasi di ba, shamans lead the spiritual life of tribes sa anthropology ng africa - so Shaman, witch-doctor, ganun...Pero hindi pa rin masyadong angkop kasi ang Babaylan, beyond doing religious duties eh seer din siya, din healer din, medium, elder, tapos yun pa ang element ng 'witchcraft'...Ang tawag natin witchcraft kasi yun ang pinakamalapit na term this day pero dati eh hindi naman yun evil....mga ritwal lang ng sinauna bago pa man dumating satin ang western religion and western medicine na naglabel dito na 'witch-work' at 'evil'...Yung wawa ko nga dati eh nagpapractice pa tapos nguya to the max ng bettle nut at apog...red na yung mouth nun always, parang dumudugo....Pero sabi niya good for the soul daw yun...sabi ng Tita kung dentista, yung daw ang rason kung bakit walang tumatagal na pustiso ke wawa...

  3. #43
    Lesson no. 25: Hayohay
    by Prof. Misskopinas

    Originally Posted by misskopinas
    Ang hayohay kasi - theyre the lowest form of slave kasi they cant be given 'freedom'...So Rajah and family, Datu and family, Timawa, Uripon tsaka Hayohay...Caste system tayo eh at ang hayohay ang lowest...Parang yung Dalits ng India, lower than the dust sila...so pag me dumadaan na mas mataas pa sa dalit, kailangan nila humiga sa lupa (grabe)...Ang Hayohay di ba kasi mga bihag dati pa so no choice sila but to follow all orders or the equivalent is eath (like the Babaylan na naging Hayohay sa pungsod ni Rajah M.)...Ang uripon may chance pa maging Timawa at may Rights, ang hayohay wala....Pero puede mo na rin silang tawaging uripon...interchangeable siya for me...if I feel nice and they can still be saved - uripon...pero pag masyado ng abusado, hayohay kasi ang hayohay, la ng pagasa mafree. Sa tingin ko wala na silang pagasa mafree sa poot nila.
    Lesson no. 26: Maragtas
    by Prof. Misskopinas

    Originally Posted by misskopinas
    Guys.....I forgot but I should have mentioned it....The people of Aninipay or ancient Panay had written down their own 'oral Histories' na nasa form ng Epic story-Telling, it is called the 'Maragtas' (history in Visayan translation).... Our elders before the total Hispanization 'wrote down' into paper their own stories and tales and even the first exchanges between the colonizers and the ancients (it contains the story of the Barter of Panay)...If you want to learn more about the Maragtas, go here:
    http://www.mts.net/~pmorrow/marag_f.htm

    But be warned because the Maragtas has been under deep scrutiny as to the authenticity of the original writer...if it was a 'record' or just a fictional product of imagination....It was written in Hiligaynon and Karay-a.
    Lesson no. 27: Code of Kalantiaw
    by Prof. Misskopinas

    Originally Posted by misskopinas
    Sandali, bago ko pa rin makalimutan....while this is 'mythical' and it's authenticity is argued (kasi si Scott sabi niya the documents gathered did not follow historiography although I argue that the original 'author' of the Translation of the Maragtas - J.E. Marco who got it from a supposed friar named Jose Ma. Pavon - could have gathered or written it down from oral history....For sure to me anyway, the punishments are familiar.... What you will see below is the Code of Kalantiaw - eto ang Batas ni Rajah M., an ancient 'Constitution or Rule of Law' sa Visayas/Aninipay, that, if this was real, shows we had a 'legal system' na kasing effective din ng Code of Hammurabi...sayang at walang archaeological evidence para dito, oral lang, mahaba eto ha (from Wiki - galing ng wiki):
    Article I
    You shall not kill, neither shall you steal, neither shall you do harm to the aged, lest you incur the danger of death. All those who infringe this order shall be condemned to death by being drowned in the river, or in boiling water.
    Article II
    You shall obey. Let all your debts with the headman be met punctually. He who does not obey shall receive for the first time one hundred lashes.
    Article III
    Obey you: let no one have women that are very young nor more than he can support; nor be given to excessive lust. He who does not comply with, obey, and observe this order shall be condemned to swim for three hours for the first time and for the second time, to be beaten to death with sharp thorns.
    Article IV
    Observe and obey; let no one disturb the quiet of the graves. When passing by the caves and trees where they are, give respect to them.
    Article V
    You shall obey; he who exchanges for food, let it be always done in accordance with his word. He who does not comply, shall be beaten for one hour, he who repeats the offense shall be exposed for one day among ants.
    Article VI
    You shall be obliged to revere sights that are held in respect, such as those of trees of recognized worth and other sights. He who fails to comply shall pay with one month's work in gold or in honey.
    Article VII
    These shall be put to death; he who kills trees of venerable appearance; who shoot arrows at night at old men and women; he who enters the houses of the headmen without permission; he who kills a shark or a streaked cayman.
    Article VIII
    Slavery for a doam (a certain period of time) shall be suffered by those who steal away the women of the headmen; by him who keep ill-tempered dogs that bite the headmen; by him who burns the fields of another.
    Article IX
    All these shall be beaten for two days: who sing while traveling by night; kill the Manaul; tear the documents belonging to the headmen; are malicious liars; or who mock the dead.
    Article X
    It is decreed an obligation; that every mother teach secretly to her daughters matters pertaining to lust and prepare them for womanhood; let not men be cruel nor punish their women when they catch them in the act of adultery. Whoever shall disobey shall be killed by being cut to pieces and thrown to the caymans.
    Article XI
    These shall be burned: who by their strength or cunning have mocked at and escaped punishment or who have killed young boys; or try to steal away the women of the elders.
    Article XII
    These shall be drowned: all who interfere with their superiors, or their owners or masters; all those who abuse themselves through their lust; those who destroy their anitos (religious icons) by breaking them or throwing them down.
    Article XIII
    All these shall be exposed to ants for half a day: who kill black cats during a new moon; or steal anything from the chiefs or agorangs, however small the object may be.
    Article XIV
    These shall be made slave for life: who have beautiful daughters and deny them to the sons of chiefs, and with bad faith hide them away.
    Article XV
    Concerning beliefs and traditions; these shall be beaten: who eat the diseased flesh of beasts which they hold in respect, or the herb which they consider good, who wound or kill the young of the Manaul, or the white monkey.
    Article XVI
    The fingers shall be cut-off: of all those who break anitos of wood and clay in their alangans and temples; of those who destroy the daggers of the catalonans(priest/priestess), or break the drinking jars of the latter.
    Article XVII
    These shall be killed: who profane sites where anitos are kept, and sites where are buried the sacred things of their diwatas and headmen. He who performs his necessities in those places shall be burned.
    Article XVIII
    Those who do not cause these rules to be obeyed: if they are headmen, they shall be put to death by being stoned and crushed; and if they are agorangs they shall be placed in rivers to be eaten by sharks and caymans.

  4. #44
    Lesson no. 28: Manaul
    by Prof. Misskopinas

    Originally Posted by misskopinas
    ang Manaul ay ang 'Haring Ibon'....also known as the Philippine Eagle...but I am not so sure if the Manaul here is far more just about size, like BIG birds are referred to as Manaul...or maybe a 'mythic big bird'...Pero for me, its the Haring Ibon.

    Lesson no. 29: Mahardlika Nation
    by Prof. Misskopinas

    Originally Posted by misskopinas
    Not all of the islands belonging to the present-day Philippines was a part of the 'Mahardlika Nation' - it was Visayan - present day na Central tsaka Western Visayas...Eto ang setting na fictional kingdom ni Rajah M. Yup, I wrote about it awhile back....The Mahardlika nation were trading with the island 'pungsods' in the form of Sultanates (ternate), the Malaccas, Borneo, etc...Pero sa Luzon, sa Mindanao, lahat naman merong maliliit na 'nations' na me sariling Datu o sa mas malaki eh Rajah...pero nagvavarry din and term....Ang Mahardlika ang pinakamalaki at well-known na 'nation' sa ancient Pinas at comprable daw eto sa Srivijayan Empire or sa Ayutthaya at Siam... unique eto dahil its an archipelagic 'Kingdom' (pero ang puno ay rajah, di king, closest term lang) so ang pag rule neto ng Rajah ay via his vassal-datus and he travels by a fleet of barotos, karakoas, balangay, vintas, paraw, etc....

    Lesson no. 30: Ancient Philippines
    by Prof. Misskopinas

    Originally Posted by misskopinas
    As a whole, bago dumating ang mga Kastila wala pang talagang 'pilipinas'.... ang lahat ng isla noon me sari-sariling 'pungsod' independent of each other. Each Isla may sariling Name like yung Luzon - Liusung halimbawa...Ang Kastila lang naman ang nagtala ng ating 1,7007 islands na maging Pinas...Bago sila hindi natin inisip na isa tayo....Mahirap kasi dahil isla,isla mahirap mapunuan ng isang powerful ruling leader....Kaya unique ang Mahardlika kasi archipelagic siya.

    Lesson no. 31: Significance of color black
    by Prof. Misskopinas

    Originally Posted by misskopinas
    Sabi ng wawa ko na Babaylan (pero mild lang na babaylan yun), ang 'itum nga kuring' (itim na pusa) ay may religious significance ang color na black sa ritual kasi its the color of the Night...so sa rituals, Black chicken offerings are best...But Black cats are seen as inhibited by anito-spirits when they observe the world and get into our homes...so u kill it, you anger the anitos. Sabi ng wawa ko yan...

    Lesson no. 32: Aswangs, TikTiks, WakWaks - Pre-colonial Pan-Asian creatures
    by Prof. Misskopinas

    Originally Posted by misskopinas
    Hi. You are right in your opinion that the Spanish used part of the local beliefs and myths to spread their message further...They relegated the Diwatas, Tumawos and the Anito for example to the position of villains and labelled them 'evil' so as to invite the locals far more willingly to the protection of the church.

    But, as Anthropologist Malinowski has found out in all his studies of South Pacific cultures, every tribal belief, even one 'pure' of Colonial influence has it's Pantheon of Gods and 'anti-Gods' - the evil deites and the monsters and creatures they command. According to Scott, the notion of a Monster such as the Tiktik, aswang, WakWak - they are widespread all over the islands. What's more, this is very similar to the Malay Monster Penanggalan (see the familiar root noun '-anggal' - to remove, which is also the root of our own verb 'Tanggal' in Tagalog?) and Indonesia has a similar Monster as well.

    What does the linguistic connection tells us? That the legend and myths sorrounding the Aswang is very much Pre-Spanish. The Kastilas only used the legend to embellish their claims but the belief about these monster had already filled our ancestors with fear previously, them and peoples across the Pan-Malay archipelago.Consider the Sarimanok for example, Thais have their own very similar version, the Garuda and the garuda is, like the Sarimanok, considered to be Royal, Divine and Holy despite their monstrous appearance. So don't just dump the creature-creation to the Spanish because that misses the point of the richness of our ancient heritage. Just as the heroes and gods were important, so are the villains - the monsters, creatures and evil beings - in the story and our ancient tales are replete with these, and they include incarnations of the aswangs. Heroes after all are measured by the challenges they face, and above all, by the villains they topple.

    For more, Visit:
    http://hubpages.com/hub/Real-Monster...-and-Sightings
    http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/inquire...igin-of-aswang
    http://ladyofspiders.wordpress.com/2007/11/page/2/
    http://www.manananggals.com/manananggal.htm

  5. #45
    Lesson no. 34: Binukot
    by Prof. Misskopinas

    Originally Posted by misskopinas
    1. Not necessarily, Binukots are chosen...Back int he 15th century, the Binukots were usually children of the Datus or Rajahs because being the highest sa social order, naturally they will have the most beautiful children (by assumption)...pero in practice, even today, it is only the prettiest child in the village na ginagawang binukot...incidentally, in Nepal, they have their own versions of Binukot...In Nepal for example, a Hindu sect there believe that a particular goddess comes to reincarnate herself among the people of Nepal and they choose the most beautiful girl to 'become' the deity.The girl is taken to live in the temple, treated like a princess, carried around like the Binukots are, with her feet never touching dirt...She learns the rituals and prayers and is taught, from the time of her 'hiding' that she is a Goddess...people cannot look at her but worship her from afar...There was a documentary about this practice by the National geographic...I am still looking for it online...Pero for me, the whole 'Binukot' tradition na pinapractice natin sa Pinas ay Hindu in origin and is a practice na influence ng Srivijayan empire na katabing Imperyo ng Mahardlika noong unang panahon pa bago dumating ang mga Kastila. So, sa ating mga fellow Pinoys na iniisip na ang pagbubukot ay 'ATIN' lang, this is not the case, we share this tradition with Pan-Asian cultures due to that stage where Hinduism had control.

    2. I doubt...Binukots can only be freed from their Bukot by marriage or if they were 'taken' from their Bukot forcibly ala Amaya...Binukots are chosen and the Datu or rajah can chose if his daughter will be made binukot or not. But Binukots are hidden from view, given value so that the sons of Datu or Rajahs will provide good dowry in their exchange....Plus, there is the factor that some Datus and Dians or Rajahs/Rahu would rather not take the opportunity of living life without cages for their kids. Maybe this is the reason why Mantal is so envious because she was never made a Binukot otherwise she will not be free to roam at will...And Lamitan did not have to be a binukot because when she was a child, she was already 'married off' to Bugna so that his father can have an heir.

    3. (see above)

    4. (see above)

    5. We will never know...being gay, in a time of warriors, I think, is not an acceptable option for men....Perhaps seguro pag meron tayong eunuch tradition puede (yung mga lalaking pinuputulan ng balls upang magwardia sa harem upang di makabuntis ng concubines)...But then again sa Polynesian tribes sa research ni Malinowski ang mga Bading ay accepted na nature ng tao and they function in society as 'women' except hindi sila full women na puedeng manganak...Accepted na notion na merong mga ispirito na mali ang sinidlan na katawan kung kayat kahit nature nila ay lalaki, babae ang katawan o vice versa...ang mga eto ay kinakaawaan at hindi source ng shame kaya binibigyan na lang sila ng function sa society...This was, of all people, discovered by Van Gogh when he travelled to Polynesia and met the native inhabitants, learning their society...Rumor was him being also of the effeminate persona, meron siyang special friend na ganito rin ang nature na Polynesian at eto ang naging 'mate' niya.


    Books & Online articles about Philippine & South East Asian Prehistory

    Originally Posted by misskopinas
    Hello Kapusods/Amayans!

    As requested by many especially JagJof,Culia, RJ & Ginger - here is an initial list of books and online articles that look into Philippine and South East Asian pre-history before the arrival of the Spanish. These are very interesting books and articles because they discuss a myriad of topics from genetics, politics, social order, literature to culture. You will find that since these books are not very current, they will most easily have digital versions. Do try google books - you will be able to access them there for free.

    Misskopinas


    (Books)
    Jocano, F. Landa (1975).Philippine prehistory : an anthropological overview of the beginnings of Filipino society and culture.Philippine Center for Advanced Studies, University of the Philippines System.
    Junker, Laura Lee (2000). Raiding, Trading, and Feasting: The Political Economy of Philippine Chiefdoms. Ateneo de Manila University Press
    Haskins, J. & Haskins, J (1982).The Filipino Nation: The Philippines : lands and peoples, a cultural geography.Grolier International.
    Munoz, Paul Michel (2006). Early Kingdoms of the Indonesian Archipelago and the Malay Peninsula. Editions Didier Millet.
    National Historical Commission, Philippines. Unesco National Commission of the Philippines (1970).A Symposium on the Maragtas held on the 27th of January 1968: at the Epifanio de Los Santos Auditorium (National Library Building).National Historical Commission.
    Patanñe, E.P. (1996).The Philippines in the 6th to 16th centuries.LSA Press.
    Patanñe, E.P. (1972).The Philippines in the world of Southeast Asia: a cultural history.Enterprise Publications.
    Scott, William Henry (1994).Barangay: sixteenth-century Philippine culture and society.Ateneo de Manila University Press.
    Scott, William Henry (1984).Prehispanic source materials for the study of Philippine history.New Day Publishers.
    Scott, William Henry (1992).Looking for the prehispanic Filipino: and other essays in Philippine history.New Day Publishers.
    Scott, William Henry (1968).A critical study of the prehispanic source materials for the study of Philippine history.University of Santo Tomas Press.
    Wavell,Stewart (1965).The Naga King's daughter.Atheneum.
    Zaide, Sonia M. (1999). The Philippines: A Unique Nation. All-Nations Publishing.

    (Web-Articles)
    Http://www.elaput.org/plas01.htm - an absolutely interesting resource, web adaptation of ‘Relacion delas costumbres que los yndios solian tener en estas yslas hecha’ ni Juan de Plasencia, frayleng Franciscan, nuong 1589
    http://www.ualberta.ca/~vmitchel/rev1.html - Philippine first inhabitants
    http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases...1024152622.htm - Indochina Prehistory
    http://tabacofamily.com/jtabaco/picivili.asp - A timeline of the Ancient Philippine Civilization based on the work of the Vatican Scholar, Fr. Josemaria S. Luengo, Ph.D.
    http://cebu-online.com/swum/html/pre-historc.html - some exhibits from the Iron Age of Ancient Philippines
    http://www.philippines-timeline.com/ - a NZ Uni student research timeline, very sparse but interesting insights
    http://hpgl.stanford.edu/publication...1_v68_p432.pdf - an interesting research on the genetic origins of Oceania and South-East Asian nations - it shows that we are related to peoples of the Indonesian and Malay Archipelagos genetically.
    http://www.jrank.org/history/pages/5...east-Asia.html - A general view of 'Southeast Asia Before History' by Cambridge
    http://www.seasite.niu.edu/crossroad...istory_sea.htm - interesting timeline of Prehistory of SEA, here you will find listed civilizations in existence side by side at a particular time throughout SEA before the Spanish arrived.
    Other References: (from Amaya page)

    Sa mga gustong masulyapan ang Boxer Codex na nabanggit ni Ms. Suzi ito po ang ilan sa mga nilalaman nito:
    https://www.facebook.com/media/set/?...5.124360976519 https://www.facebook.com/media/set/?...3.124360976519 https://www.facebook.com/media/set/?...4.124360976519

    BAKAS 2011
    by Dr. Vic Villan (UP Historian,History Consultants of Amaya)
    https://www.facebook.com/media/set/?...9.124360976519
    credits: Filipino weapons & history ("Filhistory")

    Seclusion and Veiling of Women: A Historical and Cultural Approach
    by Maria Bernadette L. Abrera
    http://journals.upd.edu.ph/index.php...File/1274/1630

    A handbook of Philippine Folklore
    by Mellie Leandicho Lopez
    http://books.google.com.ph/books?id=...page&q&f=false

    Ang Kosmolohiya at Simbolismo
    by Lorenz Lasco
    (tinatalakay dito ang kahalagahan at simbolismo ng ahas noong unang panahon)
    http://dl.dropbox.com/u/3272381/1969-2030-1-PB.pdf

    The narrative about a baby with a twin snake in Calbiga, Samar is written on Father Francisco Ignacio Alcina's "Historia de las islas e Indios de Bisayas" 1668 (History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands) Chapter 12 of Part 1 Book 3.

    'Barangay: Sixteenth-Century Philippine Culture and Society
    by William Henry Scott
    http://books.google.com/books?id=15K...page&q&f=false

  6. #46
    Lesson no. 35: Regionalism Blinds, True Historical Meaning Convoluted by Illogism
    by Prof. Misskopinas

    Originally Posted by misskopinas
    Hi Guys,
    sandali ha....when writing fiction based on history, you take liberties in creating some amalgamation of events, peoples and cultures to present a story...Take for instance Mel Gibson's 'Braveheart' - it was based on a real character, his life and times but it was 'expanded' with other characters, created from imagination but based on the realities of that period. Writers do this not with the intent of rewriting history, they do this for entertainment value and to depict the 'social context' that the Historical Figure - imagined or real - lived in. This is the same with the Scott Brother's Russel Crowe starrer 'Gladiator'. Was there a real Roman general of said name and life in that period? How about it's villain? There weren't but they were, once again an amalgamation (pinagtagpi-tagpi) na mga attributes ng mga historical figures like for Maximus si Gen. Varus at ang Caesar na nicharacterize ni Joaquin Phoenix - si Nero. This is already Hollywood and this is the stock method used by writers to present the social context of a historical time period where life can only be based on artifacts, records and documents. In stories like this, historians and archaeologists help writers recreate a 'lost world'.

    Ganito rin ang nangyayari sa Amaya. Much worse pa kasi walang halos records noon. The centuries that gap our time and the setting is divided by almost 600 years and in between we have had the Spanish, the Americans, Wars and our recent chaotic history as a nation. As a Historian, I can say this. Whatever 'Binukot' and ethnic practice even the purest of 'tribes' have in this day and age all over Panay and South-EAst Asia - they will not be 'TRUE TO THE 15th CENTURY'. Historians know this - history is situated in time and in social context. The conditions then are different from the conditions now. Even in the most far flung barrios Western ideas are ever present and our folklores as well as ethnic practices (consider Pagbabarang) already include Christian and modern elements. What we have, in the practice of said 73-year old is an 'Artifact' - a remainder of an ancient practice and is only a very minute rendition and element to the Original.

    So, what does this mean? That even by simply claiming what is seen on TV is not true, the old chanter, much respect to her ethnic traditions, is judging AMAYA from an Ethnocentric perspective. This is to be expected. Ethnocentricism in the Philippines is very regionalistic. Kung ano ang alam nila, yun lang ang tama, hindi nila naiisip na mas MAlaki pa ang Mundo kesa sa Aninipay and many cultures can claim the same root traditions from the Indones to the Malay. But can we blame them? After the Spanish arrived they have been very defensive of ancient practices. They have had to keep their copies of the MAragtas and ancient writings away from prying eyes in lieu of being accused as a witch/pagan-satanic worshipper and then killed. They were forced to shed their old narratives in relation to who they are and then given a new one by the Spanish. In the confusion, whatever they have salvaged becomes 'only theirs' not thinking that many have gone through the same oppression who have lost just what they have lost all over the Philippines under the Spanish, Indonesia under the Dutch, Malaysia under the French and the British. It will be pointless to argue to the old chantress that she is a little misinformed because this is the truth she has known since birth. She, like so many others, had been disconnected completely to our shared Pan-Asian Heritage. What she holds is a version of the truth but not the entire truth because she only sees a very small part of the canvas. This is is what ethnocentricism and regionalism (as well as Network wars) do to people - they see the world through blinders, like horses in a race so that they cannot see the entire picture and the wider world around them. Sadly, people in the rival network, so-called critics and those envious of Amaya's success will exploit her claim being themselves fallen to self-interest. This is what is sad about our country, salita muna bago isip. Kaya Banana republic tayo at mauunahan pa tayo ng Vietnam at Indonesia sa development.

    Misskopinas (feeling the pain of ethnocentric loyalties is a harsh reality - mode)

    P.S. Daan lang ako...currently on the Road I will try my best to catch up with the monday episode and my heart is heavy with the anticipation of the tragic events to unfold....I just imagine Lamitan's future misery and it helps a little....

    Lesson no. 36: On Quality Shows, Amaya's Value and Babaylans
    by Prof. Misskopinas

    Originally Posted by misskopinas
    Mga Kapungsod - Hi! Pasensiya na at mahaba-haba ang aking entry. This is to share and discuss the notion of quality TV based on a perspective from the eyes of one used to 'Western Quality' to dampen the insinuation regarding the quality of the show.

    Reflecting on 'Quality' Shows

    Quality is that attribute or property of a thing, an experience or a memory. You cannot just say, the show is 'quality' because you have not defined it all tgoether. You either have to say it is excellent quality or bad quality according to a set of principles or rules. Now, about Great Quality Shows - all shows have a purpose in my life...whether for mindless entertainment just for the purpose of relaxation and laughter, to learn more about trends in hobbies and interests, news, thriller and historical or literary drama, I go for what speaks to me and it includes quality and that hint of excellence and purpose. Being based in the UK, the choices are good but my choices have never wavered over the years. It had only been lately that my interest in Philippine TV (not cinema, no although I do enjoy the occasional Filipino classics now and then) had been reawakened side by side with my interest in Thai cinema. Why is this the case? Since I was a kid, I find that afternoon and TV dramas and their stories follow the same formulaic pattern and this is not necessarily bad...it entertains and provides a lot of subject materials viewers can reflect on its just that having grown up on Mara Clara for example, the plotlines are not so surprising anymore - its only the actresses that change. This is the same for Thai TV but their cinematic achievements of late have drawn international audiences. There was breakout star martial artist Tony Jaa and his Ong Baak and the quality movies like the epic semi-historical adaptation 'Suriyothai'. Thai cinema always look to put to film their historical experience, their myths and their cultural heritage and they consume it with huge demand to the point that the Thais demand only the best. It is this best that attracts foreign audiences, Its the same with South Korean fictional historical adaptations or that of the Chinese and the Japanese most especially. I grew up watching those historical fictions starring Jet Li and it gives their cinema an innate identity that cannot be divorced from what is succintly theirs. I am not a master pf Philippine cinema, but, of the little I know, most of our movies and TV shows only go as far as the time of the Spanish and, outside of GMA7's Jose Rizal and work like Oro, Plata, Mata I cannot recall culturally and identity relevant work done in Philippine Entertainment. Do feel free to let me know of what I might have missed.

    What's on my TV Viewing Schedule?

    As I was saying, I only got backl to watching Pinoy TV of late. I used to take a peek at GMA shows every now and then and enjoyed what I saw once in a while. I especially like the documentaries and the news and journalistic work having made sure to include Jessica Soho and the i-witness series in my weekly views. I have come to like MR's dramas and soaps as well but I confess to not being a regular viewer. Sometimes I'd take a peek at what ABS offers but I mostly gravitate towards the work of GMA. So, what's on my daily/regular viewing list?
    Procedurals, from the US: ALL CSI franchise, Criminal Minds, NCIS, Body of Proof, Hawaii 5-0, The Good Guys (now axed), Memphis Beat, Justified.
    Crime/Spy shows: White Collar, Burn Notice, The Defenders (now axed)
    Sci-Fi/Adventure: Battlestar Gallactica (now ended but I still love the reruns), Supernatural
    Historical Adaptation/Fiction: Any produced by HBO (i.e. Band of Brothers) and any produced by the BBC (i.e. Rome)
    Show Format: Top Gear UK for cars (my über favorite)
    Documentaries: Anything by Discovery Channel, the BBC (i.e. Human PLanet), Travel Documentaries (i.e. Globetrekker or Food+Travel like Anthony Bourdain), National Geographic (any historical, scientific, travel, military or current events show) and additional shows like Human Weapon from the History Channel and more...the list goes on
    News Channels: CNN and the BBC (this is the standard material on my TV viewing)
    From the Philippines: GMA7's Jessica Soho, Imbestigador (to keep up with the kind of criminal trends current in Pinoy society), 24 oras (good reporting, except the showbiz news), i-witness, Reporter's notebook and, for local soaps - AMAYA and Amaya only. I rarely get involved in TV soaps especially in terms of making it a part of my viewing habits but Amaya, for me is just as reviting, well-written, well-cast and well-produced Historical adaptations. Party perhaps because of my being Filipino and partly because I appreciate it when put side-by-side with Thai efforts and of Chinese as well as of South Korean efforts. It is a show that can be exported to represent our rich cultural heritage.

    Amaya's as a show of Break-out Quality

    Now, why have I listed what's usually on my TV viewing habits? There was some post here earlier indicating that quality is not the point in watching AMAYA. Nope, actually, it is. If you look at my list, the shows are chosen and they come from good production houses and international networks. These networks are vying for my viewing eyes to consume their products AND I have included AMAYA out of ALL the available Pinoy shows concurrent. Yes, once in a while I take a peek at other shows on GMA and ABS but nothing, nothing has yet captivated my imagination as AMAYA has done. I know quality TV (Spielberg/HAnks' Band of Brothers for example - that is the height of epic and glorious military history adaptation for TV as compared to say, the low quality movies-for-tv by Sy-fi channel like , 'Dinoshark' - I still gag everytime I remember how I accidentally viewed some scenes due to the insistance of my nieces over Christmas). I have a very good choice laid out before me and I can choose to watch any as I please beyond Philippine TV, offering from Asia, Europe and America. Yet, AMAYA has made it through my viewing list. I am as excited about watching an AMAYA episode, for example just as I am anticipating the next episode for White Collar with Matt Bomer in it and that guy is really, really hot and that show is absolutely excellent. Amaya moves me just as much as the drama in Justified with Timothy Olyphant as US MArshall Raylan Givens have. I am so vested in Amaya just as I am so vested with CAstiel and the brothers Winchester in Supernatural. Of course, these are TV-movies, tv-story-plays. But Amaya takes pride of place in my viewing pleasure just as Top Gear does or the BBC's Human Planet do.

    So stop insinuating that viewers of AMAYA do not know great quality. It is the oppositte. Viewers of AMAYA have spotted quality; after AMAYA, the standards will be raised. It will be the show that production values, ensemble cast and story-research as well as character archetypes will be compared to. Had there ever been a show in the history of Philippine TV that is comparable production-wise, ensemble-wise, network-support-wise and reception-wise to it? None. It is ridiculous that so many among the PInoys are trying to bad mouth and criticise what it brings to the table as if their own heritage were not important enough to discover or unearth. What seems to be of import is the ridiculous network loyalties that have come to divide the public, depriving everyone of making the most of what is on TV, on offer, for free. PLus, all these niggles, these 'small, petty' details that people bring forth. Is this in purpsuit of perfection or is this in pursuit of criticising for the purpose of being critical? If you are analysing or criticing because the show spoke to you and encouraged reflection and thinking, it is good as it expands your mind. BUt if you are watching to look for what you deem is wrong, then the debate will be endless. Perfection, greatness and beauty - they are subjective and never universal. Human beings are unique in their individual personalities, experiences and socialization so agreement as to how things must be done will always differentiate. Nothing, NOTHING on TV and in the world will ever be perfect and GOOD for everybody. What we can achieve is verissimilitude, truth within context. So stop looking for universals and search for shared joy and heritage lessons in watching Amaya, then you will start to feel better about what AMAYA is really there to give you. A window from which to view the world inhabited by our ancestors whom we have lost touch with and forgotten over time. Knowing your cultural heritage is part of knowing yourself. Amaya therefore is GMA's gift to you in this sense. Take it, say thank you and enjoy!

    A Postcript:
    About Babylans
    by Prof. Misskopinas

    Somebody asked about the sex of the Babaylans way back a few pages in the thread? Ok, here's your answer - Katalunans or Babaylans can be either male or female. It is an art that can be passed from father to son, mother to daughter in the present. In the past however when Babaylany acted as the connectction of society to the Spirit world, Babylans chose apprentices to learn the profession and the duties and rituals as well as the prayers and knowledge attached to the position. It is a very important position as one becomes the arbiter of all earthly affairs according to what the will of the Spirit World is and in Animism, the spirit world is most vital in terms of arranging and conducting one's life. Now, you may ask why in AMAYA the Babaylans are women. I think the writing team, upon anthro advise took up the gendrified structure of society. Hence, while males become warriors, women must take up other roles such as working in the fields, nurturing families and of course, speaking to the spirits. Among many South EAst Asian cultures, the belief that women, being the sex that gives life is much more connected to the 'Life Source' or the world of the supernatural is very high. Women and the matriarchs therefore are the source of shamanistic wisdom bring much more knowledgeable about roots and trees and about herbal medicine. Roles in society is according to gender and as we can see, this is very strict in AMAYA'S society. Amaya will change this, obviously. For more:

    http://babaylanfiles.blogspot.com/20...men-power.html
    http://www.babaylan.net/faqs.shtml
    http://portiaplacino.wordpress.com/2...e-and-imagery/


    For Anthropology work on the Babaylan Phenomenon, this is interesting:

    Shinji Yamashita, Joseph Bosco, Jeremy Seymour Eades (2004), The making of anthropology in East and Southeast Asia, Berghahn Books. (go to page 349)

    For Shamanism in General (Babaylans are the Visayan equivalent of Shamans):
    http://jk22b.blogspot.com/2004/12/babaylanismo.html - the Article is "Babaylanismo: Ang mga Babaylan ng Sinaunang Panahon" ni Prop. John Ponsaran ng UP Manila. He publishes Cultural and historical college text for Vibal Publishing and together with my HIstory Professors in DIliman - Dr. Camagay, Dr. Jose and Dr. MIranada. among many others produced the current Asian Civ textbook for High schools: Asian Civilization: History and Culture.

    Misskopinas (dumadaan lang pero napasulat na naman - mode)

  7. #47
    from amaya page

    From Ms. Suzi
    --------------------------
    May isang blogger na tumutuligsa sa binukot ng amaya- at sinagot ko ang mga paratang niya pero he deleted my replies so im publishing it here para sa mga interesadong magbasa.
    ==================

    Iho, uulitin ko, 1500s po ang setting ng amaya. ang mga ancestors ng mga suludnon (ang mga katutubong nagpapractice ng pagbibinukot) ay pinaniniwalaang nanggaling sa indonesia (wag na nating isama ang 10 bornean datu dahil sila ay legend lamang base sa pag aaral ng mga scholars)..dumating sila sakay ng mga bangka, dala ang kultura nila, saan sila unang tumira? sa bundok agad?? oh come on! logically, sa coastal areas sila unang tumira

    noong 1500s at pababang mga dekada, ang sentro ng kabuhayan ay nasa dagat, pagkat kilala ang mga taga panay--- sa boat building at kaalaman sa navigation. posible na ang mga naunang suludnon ay sa dagat naninirahan noong 1500s o pababa pa. bakit ko nasabi ito? dahil kung pag aaralan mo at aanalisahin ang mga epikong hawak ng mga present day binukot---- lahat halos ng mga epikong yan ay may mga talata ukol sa mga boats and sailing . e kung sa bundok sila unang nanirahan, bakit may mga talata ng dagat sa mga epiko nila? sagutin mo iyan. dagat po ang nag uugnay sa bawat isla. ang dagat ang sentro ng buhay ng mga taga visayas noon bago po dumating ang mga kastila.

    so imposible bang sabihin na ang ninuno ng mga present day suludnon ay sa dagat unang nanirahan (lalot noong 1500s--- uso ang boat building ha :P) Now, dahil ang isa ring source ng kabuhayan nila ay pagkakaingin, maaring sinundan ng mga sinaunang tao ang dagat patungo sa mga rivers, ilog, hanggang makarating sila sa uplands. kaya may nakatira na rin sa uplands o sa bundok. nang dumating ang mga kastila noong 1521, pls note, sa mga tala ni pigafetta, sinabi na sa mga coastal areas nakatira ang karamihan ng mga sinaunang Filipino o kabisayaan----at may mga binukot silang nakita (sa samar leyte ang nakatala doon)...

    hindi ko sinasabing walang binukot sa uplands o bundok ha. hindi naman kasi nagtungo sa bundok ang grupo nina magellan at pigafetta noon e kaya di nila alam na may mga binukot sa bundok. pero nakita nila na sa coastal areas ay may mga kababaihan na itinatago sa loob ng bahay at sila ay mas maputi pa sa mga kastila.

    which means, posible na noong 1500s, may mga binukot din sa coastal areas. at bakit mayroon? dahil ang binukot ay prized possession sapagkat ito ay may mataas na bride price (bugay ang tawag sa dowry). note: may mga tala na noong araw, noong 1500s, kapag gusto nang mag asawa ng isang lalaki, maaari siyang mangayaw (raid by boat) at maghanap ng magiging asawang preferably ng isang binukot na babae. o di kaya, magbayad ng bugay para sa mapapangasawang binukot. so imposible ba ang isinulat ko na may binukot noong 15oos na naninirahan sa coastal areas? isip isip ha.

    now, sa pagdating muli ng mga kastila noong 1600s, after mapatay ni lapu lapu si magellan noong 1521, posible na dahil sa kanilang kolonisasyon ay nawala na ang paniniwala o tradisyon ng mga sea dwellers kaya pati ang pagbubukot ay tinalikdan na rin nila (lalot sa pananakop, karamihan ng sinaunang pinoy ay cant afford na to pay the bugay o bride price).

    at tanging ang mga taga suludnon (evolution ng tawag sa kanila: Spanish times, mondo, then naging bukidnon, then naging suludnon after the colonization) na naninirahan na sa bundok, ang nakapag preserve ng kanilang kultura dahil sila ay nasa bundok. hence, kaya nang madiskubre sila noong world war 11 (at nireyp ng mga lecheng hapon ang ibang mga binukot), tanging sa bundok na lang makikita ang mga binukot.

    hindi ko sinasabing ang aking mga sinabi ay tanging katotohanan. sa totoo lang, walang isang tao, walang isang scholar, historian o anthropologist ang maaaring makapagsabi na ang kanyang research lamang ang tanging totoo! lalo nat napaka oral ng history ng pilipinas kaya walang existing records para magpatotoo o magpasubali ng research ng bawat isa...kaya nga ang history ng pre hispanic philippines until now ay masalimuot -- kasi hindi kumpleto ang datos. pag aari ng mga suludnon ang pagbubukot, oo, at hindi ko iyan pinasusubalian. ang sinasabi ko, at ang ginawa ko for amaya, noong 1500s, may mga binukot din sa coastal areas...at ang tanging ebidensya ko ay ang mismong epiko na hawak ng mga binukot / suludnon na ipinasa nila sa bawat salinlahi. mga epiko na naghahayag ng pamumuhay nila, kung saan parte ang dagat, bangka, paglalayag. read or listen to their epics. listen to their chants at makikita mo ang tunay na pinagmulan nila...at hindi iyon sa bundok gaya ng inilalaban mo

    and he said, wala daw binukot na nakahubad. which i answered na noong pre spanish times, di isyu ang nudity, maski ang virginity. normal lang na topless ang kababaihan. at pag mag-aasawa na ang isang babae, madalas, umuupa ang pamilya niya ng male slave para idevirginize ang babae para hindi na mahirapan ang mapapangasawa nito. o di ba? ang fascinating ng history. lahat yan, makikita sa amaya, abangan! Hahahahaha

    ---

    Dra Magos, isang athropologist, ang unang nag inquire sa practice ng mga binukot ng mga mountain dwellers sa Central Panay. Ang kanyang pag aaral ay sakop sa costums o practice na ito ng mga mountain dwellers ng Panay mula 1850's - 1994. 1850's ha. Panahon na ng mga Kastila iyan. Pinag aralan ni Dra Magos ang mga Sulod people (binukots). Pero that doesnt mean, nangangahulugan ito na sila lang ang indigenous group na nag practice ng pagbubucot. Dahil noong 1668, Father Francsico Alcina recorded the binucot practice sa Samar At Leyte (aba, me pictures pa ito o drawing na nasa Boxer Codex, na nasa Ateneo Library ha). Meaning, may binucot din sa Samar at Leyte noon. Ang Layo ng Samar at Leyte sa Panay ha. Although parahong nasa Bisaya ito.

    ano ito, imbento ng kastila? LOL. So ayaw nyong paniwalaan si William Henry Scott kasi mga dayuhan sila? Pero si William Henry Scott ay kinikilala ng mga scholars na Pinoy. At tinatanggap ang mga nalikom niyang datos bilang totoo. hahahahaha.

  8. #48
    Infos from Ms. Suzi

    Originally Posted by yellowsuzi
    Babaylan o Maaram - Visayan term for shaman
    Catalonan naman sa mga tagalog.
    Meaning, hindi lang mga Visaya ang may mga babaylan o binukot.
    Mayroon din ang mga katagalugan.
    Kaya similar din naman ang culture. Except sa pagbabatuk. Na hindi ginagawa sa katagalugan (in some parts though, like pangasinan, gumagamit sila ng pulang tina para ibalot ang katawan--
    kaya malaki ang hinala ko na maaaring totoo si urduja hahaha. at ang paglikha niya ng army na pawang kababaihan at tinawag niyang pulahan). Of course, hanggang ngayon, isa pa ring legend si urduja dahil walang makapagpatunay na totoo siya. :P

    Kaunti lang kasi ang historians na nag aaral at nagsasaliksik ng pre spanish history. Marami kasing research at kailangan pa ang tulong ng archeologist, anthropologist, etc. Pero yung pre spanish history ang importante na pag aralan sa school kasi iyan ang roots natin. Sad to say, hindi pa buong buo talaga ang pre spanish history ng Pinas.
    Quote:
    Originally Posted by yellowsuzi
    Animist sila, hindi pagano.
    Ang pagano ay derogatory term.
    Lets not use it to describe the spirituality of our ancestors.
    We will discuss our ancestors spiritual beliefs once duimating na tayo sa babaylan chapter. Its more sophisticated, complicated, interesting at makatao kesa sa religion na ibinigay ng westerners.
    Quote:
    Originally Posted by yellowsuzi
    -----
    ang larong (kunggit) sungka ay pre spanish na laro. na tulad sa pangangayaw o pangungubat o pag raid sa mga banwa. strategy game? sino ang nakapaglaro ng sungka? pansinin.
    Quote:
    Originally Posted by yellowsuzi
    Espalto,
    Hindi ko madidiscussed ito sa Amaya at baka pati MTRCB ay hindi ako tigilan. Pero bago pa dumating ang mga Kastila, liberated na ang paningin natin sa sex. Ang mga babae noon, nagdedemand ng sexual gratification sa kalalakihan kaya nga ang mga lalaki noon ay naglalagay ng mga "sagra" (o sige, bolitas, etc) sa kanilang mga ari dahil kung hindi nila kayang magpaligaya ng babae..aba'y iiwanan sila at maghahanap ng iba.

    Kaya itong mga espanyol, pagdating dito, na shocked at tinawag na evil o mga demonya daw ang ating mga kababaihan. Mga espanyol ang nagpauso ng Maria Clara concept. At ang mga babaylan, mga spritual leader nating babae, ay tinawag nilang mga "bruja". Yes, nagkaroon ng persucuation ng mga babaylan noong panahon ng mga Kastila kaya nagkaroon ng ilang pag-aaklas at paghihimagsik ang mga babaylan noon (kung papalaring tumaas pa ang ratings at maabisuhan tayo na mag extend, nais kong sakupin ang unang sigwa ng pagdating ng Kastila. Pero kung hindi ma extend, tatapusin ko siya sa original na plano...syempre, hindi ko ibubuking dito)

    May diborsyo na rin noong araw at RH bill (hahaha)--- hindi issue ang pagpaplano ng mga anak noon, lalo na sa mga tumao o kadatoan-- kasi mas konting anak-- mas konti ang pamamanahan (kaya may eksena na gusto ni Lamitan na painumin ng pampalaglag ang anak ni Dal'lang).
    Quote:
    Originally Posted by yellowsuzi
    Bituin Escalante is an epic chanter. Kadalasan, kapag paroroon sila sa pangangayaw (raiding gamit ang pandagat na sasakyan, o pang raraid sa kapwa karakoa o ships) ay nagdadala sila ng epic chanter. Para kung may makasalubong silang ibang mangangayaw, at marinig ang awit ng epic chanter kung gaano kagaling at ka astig ang pinuno nila ay magdalawang isip na galawin sila. Bayang Barrios was supposed to be the epic chanter kaso lang di na nahintay ang simula ng taping at natagalan kasi-- pero ok naman si Bituin. Ginamit ko rin ang kanta para ipakilala ng mabilis si Mangubat.

    Re kanta: ang mga pre spanish Visayan ay mahilig kumanta. Pag nagtatrabaho sa bukid ang mga babae, kumakantga sila-- ang mga lalaki, sa dagat naman, kanta din. May equality na noon pa, nagtatrabaho ang mga babae sa bukid, ang mga lalaki sa dagat naman (we will discuss this once we go na to the Rajah's puod/pongsod).

    Lahat halos ng gawain nila, kanta sila nang kanta--- yan ang unang impression sa atin ng mga espanyol noong una silang dumating dito (bukod sa liberal masyado ang seksuwalidad ng mga sinaunang katutubo--- ang saya diba?).
    Kaya wag pagtakhan kung hanggang ngayon ay mahilig tayong kumanta (sosyal na, karaoke, videoke) kasi bahagi na iyan ng ating kamalayan.

    Hind rin espanyol ang unang nakaimbento ng magic realism. Pansinin ang mga epiko natin, may magic, at bahagi ng pamumuhay ng mga katutubo. Naniniwala sila sa anting anting --- kaya si Rajah Mangubat ay may power ng daliri (may tawag sa ganitong power, nasa script, di ko matandaan kung binanggit at medyo eng eng yung artista na nagbitaw ng dialog at nagsabi sa kanyang Datu)

    May mga ganitong fantasy/magic din sa Amaya (kaya may bakunawa--- at marami pang ibang dadating na kwento) kaya pag hindi sanay sa epiko ng Pinas, sasabihin di makatotohanan kasi masyadong fantasy. Pero ang Amaya ay tribute din sa Phil Epic. Sa Biag ni Lam'ang, ang kanyang manok kapag tumilaok-- nagwawasak ng kubo! Tilaok lang yan ha. Lol.

    O siya, kakain pa ako.

  9. #49
    Lesson no. 37: Hiligaynon
    by Prof. Misskopinas

    Originally Posted by misskopinas
    Hligaynon is also known as Ilonggo but very much related to Cebuano and other Visayan languages in that they areall Austronesian- meaning they have the same roots as Indones and Malay as well as the wider Pacific-South East Asian dialects. Actually, Hiligaynon,like Indones and Cebuano belong to Melayu-Polynesian but linguists trace it even to be a relation of Formosan native language - the native speech of the native peoples of Taiwan (not the Chinese of course). There are 11million speakers of Hiligaynon,concentrated in Western Visayas and due to migration,in regions of Mindanao. As far as I can tell,Hilaya is a Nicobarese language and I searched but I did notfind in the 'official 154 dialects' of Pinas Hilaya listed as a dialect.Hilaya is, in Austronesian a common term meaning 'upwards or northern'. A scientific study showed that the SEA region from Formosa to Borneo to Irian Jaya show that species of the same flora and fauna thrive in regions separated by waterdue to its archipelagic nature but many say that at one point in time before the islands separated from either the mainland or were created due to volcanic activity when the earth, scientists say had one super landmass - Pangea, Laurasia- the upper continent subdivided due to plate tectonics into smaller 'elements' like the 'craton' (a main stable part of the continental land mass) of Laurentia which moved away to become the Americas and Sundaland or South China which now includes all of South East Asia. Paleoanthropologists say that the earliest Man wasborn in Africa 200,000 years ago. But in a Chinaexcavation they found the 'Yuanmou Man' who is 1.7 million years old. Now,imagine this. Man learned speech and began to communicate. The last 'major'plate tectonics as well as shifting of land mass happenedduring the Ice Age. Thelast Glacial maximum happened only 20,000 years ago. So man had been around far longer than the shifting of land Mass. Therefore at one point- our common ancestors who were separated by shifting landmass, by rising seas spoke one language. Linguists do not know what is this root language but what is apparent is this - language points to ashared ancestry and shared history between peoples. Therefore sa ating region, we share language similarities, especially patterns of speech and grammar pati phonetics because we have shared ancestry. When we become sundered from each other, our speech developed words that were unique sa dialect. Pero Tagalog man o Hiligaynon- iisa ang ancestral family ng languageniya- Austronesian.

    You were asking about etymology - meaning word history/source/origin about Hiligaynon. In Pinoy dialects, adding the hulapi un,on,in or an designates the 'origin' or 'ownership' of a particular language or group of people (Sugbuanon,Hiligaynon,Katagalugan,etc.).By deduction, the root word is either Hiligay,iligay or aligay which should refer to a group of people or a place. Now,in Ilonggo, a 'major' branch of Hiligaynon (others include Karay-a and Bacolodnon, etc.), people say that the ancient name of the island of Panay is Aninipay and often referred to the language family covering Western Visayas as belonging to Anipayan, Hanipay-on, Halipaynon and, perhaps due to time and adaptions - Hiligay-on and now Hiligaynon. Hilaya or Ilaya is still an Ilonggo word meaning 'upwards,northern, or coming from an elevated place as in a mountain'. Ilawod or Hilawod still means coming from the plains, the south or a place closer to the shore. In the town of Barotac Viejo in Iloilo, the town is divided between Ilawod and Ilaya, designations dependent on the topography.

  10. #50

  11. #51
    Infos from pinoy_maharlika

    Quote:
    Originally Posted by pinoy_maharlika
    That is true. our ancient shipbuilding feat was admired by our neighbors and the conquistadores.

    Father Combes(Spanish friar during the colonial era) once said, ""The care and technique with which they build them makes their ships sail like birds, while ours are like lead in comparison." -- referring to the Indios.
    Also, let us remember that the Galleons that were used during the Manila-Acapulco Galleon trade were made from local materials and crafted by Native shipwrights from the blueprints of the Spaniards.
    ^because of this, the shipbuilding craft of our forebears were forgotten.
    Quote:
    Originally Posted by pinoy_maharlika
    Dian Lamitan was speaking in Bahasa Melayu which was the Bahasa Persatuan or Lingua Franca of the entire Malay archipelago(which included the present-day Philippines).. it is the language you'll often hear in the ports and markets during those times.. and usually in the Philippines, the aristocrats are the ones who can speak Bahasa Melayu.
    Quote:
    Originally Posted by pinoy_maharlika
    they need to. since the entire archipelago was an active participant in international trade in the Asian region during those times, foreign materials and goods surely reached these islands.

    again, perhaps the reason why they didn't use the textiles woven locally is because based on history... these people GENERALLY did not wear clothes made from locally woven cloth.. as you very well know, some states in this archipelago were Indianized.. so perhaps they needed some clothes with Hindu themes.

    but they did use local fabrics.. the picture here(page 22) shows a man wearing upper clothes made from T'nalak--cloth woven by the T'boli dreamweavers

    -----------

    Yes Maharlika is a Tagalog social class, warrior class.

    It was derived from two sanskrit words. Maha and Lekha
    Maha = great/noble ; Lekha = creation(similar with Taglog likha)

    Maha + lekha = Maharlika = Noble/Great creation
    I think maharlika is our version of Knight or Samurai

    -------------
    In the ancient times, it was like this. there were neigboring barangays.. they forge allegiances(one or perhaps the only friendly way is by Blood compact)..

    For example there are already 5 Datus who forged allegiances with one another. they will "elect" a "head datu" of some kind. These datus have jurisdiction to their respective barangays but are still subject to the general laws implemented by the "head datu"

    Remember Rajah Humabon? he had two datus under his authority. he also wanted Lapulapu to be under his authority.

    I don't think this is a good analogy for this but I'll go on. In a parliament, there are people of the parliament and from their circle they elect a Prime Minister. Here in our home, it was a bit like that before.

    Sometimes the ways may be friendly(like having blood compact) or may be by force(like in the case of Rajah Humabon to Lapu-lapu)

  12. #52
    Infos from Svadhisthana

    Quote Originally Posted by svadhisthana View Post
    Rajah is a prestige title among precolonial filipinos for a datu with a network of ally datus, and is recognized as the most powerful and first among them, the kaponoan. his hold over other datus is more like a fiefdom than an empire or governorship. loyalty is forged by sandugo. since rajah is ultimately derived, via malay, from sanskrit raja (king), i assumed that the logical female counterpart of rajah in philippine setting would be sanskrit rani (queen), especially since rani is also used in malay. but this was not withstanding the flexibility of royalty titles among different leaders in precolonial philippine politics. the rajah concept used in amaya is obviously patterned after the real-life rajah of visayas, rajah humabon. humabon's first wife was called hara amihan before she was baptized under the name juana. so lingayan was addressed as hara lingayan. not rahu (we never heard her addressed as rahu lingayan in the series). hara (stressed in the first syllable) does not seem to be an austronesian word but another sanskrit borrowing. the twist is that hara is a male title, a title of the god shiva who was widely worshipped in island southeast asia. in the philippines one of his names, bhatara, was adopted as the name of the supreme god of the tagalogs, bathala. there's another gender-bending twist: the names of rajah humabon's sons are addressed with the title sri. the word means "divine, beautiful, splendid" in sanskrit but when used as title, it usually belongs to a female (the name is associated with the hindu goddess lakshmi). this is probably the reason why they never addressed bagani as "sri bagani" although that would have been common in precolonial visayas.

  13. #53
    Infos from Svadhisthana

    Chapter Sixth
    Of the inhabitants of the Pintados Islands (Visayas) and their mode of life

    papost lang po ng ilang halaw mula sa mga klasikong etnograpiya ng mga sinaunang pilipino..

    The natives of the Pintados Islands are not very dark. Both men and women are well formed and have regular features. Some of the women are white. Both men and women wear their hair long, and fastened in a knot on the crown of the head, which is very becoming. The men tattoo their entire bodies with very beautiful figures, using therefor small pieces of iron dipped in ink. This ink incorporates itself with the blood, and the marks are indelible. They are healthy people, for the climate of that land is good. Among them are found no crippled, maimed, deaf, or dumb persons. No one of them has ever been possessed by evil spirits, or has become insane. Therefore they reach an advanced age in perfect health. The Pintados are a courageous and warlike race; they have continually waged war on both land and sea. They bore their ears in two places and wear beautiful ornaments, not only in their ears, but also around their necks and arms. Their dress is neat and modest, made generally of cotton, medriñaque, or silk (which they get from China and other places). They are greatly addicted to the use of a kind of wine which they make from rice and from the palm-tree, and which is good. Very rarely do they become angry when drunk, for their drunkenness passes off in jests or in sleep.

    The men are very fond of their wives, for it is the men who give the dowry at marriage. And even if their wives commit adultery, action is never taken against the woman, but against the adulterer. An abominable custom among the men is to bore a hole through the genital organ, placing within this opening a tin tube, to which they fasten a wheel like that of a spur, a full palm in circumference. These are made of tin, and some of them weigh more than half a pound. They use twenty kinds of these wheels; but modesty forbids us to speak of them. By means of these they have intercourse with their wives.3 The inhabitants of the mountains do not follow this custom; all, however, circumcise themselves, saying that they do it for their health and for cleanliness. When they marry, they are not concerned whether their wives are virgins or not.

    The women are beautiful, but unchaste. They do not hesitate to commit adultery, because they receive no punishment for it. They are well and modestly dressed, in that they cover all the private parts; they are very clean, and are very fond of perfumes. It is considered a disgrace among them to have many children; for they say that when the property is to be divided among all the children, they will all be poor, and that it is better to have one child, and leave him wealthy. The Pintados are very strict as to whom they marry; for no one marries below his station. Therefore chiefs will never marry any but women of rank. All the men are accustomed to have as many wives as they can buy and support. The women are extremely lewd, and they even encourage their own daughters to a life of unchastity; so that there is nothing so vile for the latter that they cannot do it before their mothers, since they incur no punishment. The men, however, are not so vile as the Moros. The Pintados love their wives so dearly, that, in case of a quarrel they take sides with their wives’ relatives, even against their own fathers and brothers.

    -Miguel de Loarca, Relacion de las Islas Filipinas

    Chapter Seventh
    Which treats of the belief held by the natives of the Pintados islands concerning the creation


    There are two kinds of people in this land, who, although of the same race, differ somewhat in their customs and are almost always on mutually unfriendly terms. One class includes those who live along the coast, the other class those who live in the mountains; and if peace seems to reign among them, it is because they depend upon each other for the necessities of life. The inhabitants of the mountains cannot live without the fish, salt, and other articles of food, and the jars and dishes, of other districts; nor, on the other hand, can those of the coast live without the rice and cotton of the mountaineers. In like manner they have two different beliefs concerning the beginning of the world; and since these natives are not acquainted with the art of writing, they preserve their ancient lore through songs, which they sing in a very pleasing manner—commonly while plying their oars, as they are island-dwellers.

    Also, during their revelries, the singers who have good voices recite the exploits of olden times; thus they always possess a knowledge of past events. The people of the coast, who are called the Yligueynes, believe that heaven and earth had no beginning, and that there were two gods, one called Captan and the other Maguayen. They believe that the land breeze and the sea breeze were married; and that the land breeze brought forth a reed, which was planted by the god Captan. When the reed grew, it broke into two sections, which became a man and a woman. To the man they gave the name of Sicalac, and that is the reason why men from that time on have been called lalac; the woman they called Sicavay, and thenceforth women have been called babayes. One day the man asked the woman to marry him, for there were no other people in the world; but she refused, saying that they were brother and sister, born of the same reed, with only one knot between them; and that she would not marry him, since he was her brother. Finally they agreed to ask advice from the tunnies of the sea, and from the doves of the air; they also went to the earthquake, who said that it was necessary for them to marry, so that the world might be peopled. They married, and called their first son Sibo; then a daughter was born to them, and they gave her the name of Samar. This brother and sister also had a daughter, called Lupluban. She married Pandaguan, a son of the first pair, and had a son called Anoranor. Pandaguan was the first to invent a net for fishing at sea; and, the first time when he used it, he caught a shark and brought it on shore, thinking that it would not die. But the shark died when brought ashore; and Pandaguan, when he saw this, began to mourn and weep over it—complaining against the gods for having allowed the shark to die, when no one had died before that time. It is said that the god Captan, on hearing this, sent the flies to ascertain who the dead one was; but, as the flies did not dare to go, Captan sent the weevil, who brought back the news of the shark’s death. The god Captan was displeased at these obsequies to a fish. He and Maguayen made a thunderbolt, with which they killed Pandaguan; he remained thirty days in the infernal regions, at the end of which time the gods took pity upon him, brought him back to life, and returned him to the world. While Pandaguan was dead, his wife Lubluban became the concubine of a man called Maracoyrun; and these people say that at that time concubinage began in the world. When Pandaguan returned, he did not find his wife at home, because she had been invited by her friend to feast upon a pig that he had stolen; and the natives say that this was the first theft committed in the world. Pandaguan sent his son for Lubluban, but she refused to go home, saying that the dead do not return to the world. At this answer Pandaguan became angry, and returned to the infernal regions. The people believe that, if his wife had obeyed his summons, and he had not gone back at that time, all the dead would return to life.

    -Miguel de Loarca, Relacion de las Islas Filipinas
    Chapter Eighth
    Of their belief concerning the dead


    It is said that the souls of those who are stabbed to death, eaten by crocodiles, or killed by arrows (which is considered a very honorable death), go to heaven by way of the arch which is formed when it rains, and become gods. The souls of the drowned remain in the sea forever. By way of honor to these, they erect a tall reed and hang upon it a garment—that of a man, if the dead be a man; but a woman’s, for a woman. This garment is left there until it falls to pieces through age. When the children or other relatives of drowned persons are sick, the relatives are taken and placed in a barangay, in company with a baylana, who is a sort of priestess; and, at the place indicated by the priestess, they throw into the sea a chest filled with robes and other articles, which they have brought with them. At the same time their ancestors are invoked to protect and help the sick man during his illness.

    Belief regarding the dead

    If those who die from disease are young, the Pintados say that the mangalos, who are goblins, are eating their bowels, wherefore they die; for these people do not know that the corruption of humors causes diseases. They say of those who die in old age that the wind comes and snatches away their souls. And of those who die thus, the Arayas (which is a certain alliance of villages), they say, go to a very high mountain in the island of Panay, called Madyas. The souls of the Yligueynes, who comprise the people of Çubu, Bohol, and Bantay, go with the god called Sisiburanen, to a very high mountain in the island of Burney.

    The god Sidapa.

    They say that there is in the sky another god, called Sidapa. This god possesses a very tall tree on mount Madyas. There he measures the lives of all the new-born, and places a mark on the tree; when the person’s stature equals this mark, he dies immediately.


    Belief concerning the destination of souls.


    It is believed that at death all souls go directly to the infernal regions; but that, by means of the maganitos, which are the sacrifices and offerings made to the god Pandaque in sight of the mount of Mayas, they are redeemed from Simuran and Siguinarugan, gods of the lower regions.

    It is said that, when the Yligueynes die, the god Maguayen carries them to Inferno. When he has carried them thither in his barangay, Sumpoy, another god, sallies forth, takes them away, and leads them to Sisiburanen, the god before mentioned, who keeps them all. Good or bad alike, he takes them all on equal terms, when they go to Inferno. But the poor, who have no one to offer sacrifices for them, remain forever, in the inferno, and the god of those regions eats them, or keeps them forever in prison. From this it will be seen how little their being good or bad avails them, and how much reason they have to hate poverty.
    Baylanas.
    The natives of these islands have neither time nor place set apart for the offering of prayers and sacrifices to their gods. It is only in case of sickness, and in times of seed-sowing or of war, that sacrifices are offered. These sacrifices are called baylanes, and the priestesses, or the men who perform this office, are also called baylanes. The priestesses dress very gaily, with garlands on their heads, and are resplendent with gold. They bring to the place of sacrifice some pitarrillas (a kind of earthen jar) full of rice-wine, besides a live hog and a quantity of prepared food. Then the priestess chants her songs and invokes the demon, who appears to her all glistening in gold. Then he enters her body and hurls her to the ground, foaming at the mouth as one possessed. In this state she declares whether the sick person is to recover or not. In regard to other matters, she foretells the future. All this takes place to the sound of bells and kettle-drums. Then she rises and taking a spear, she pierces the heart of the hog. They dress it and prepare a dish for the demons. Upon an altar erected there, they place the dressed hog, rice, bananas, wine, and all the other articles of food that they have brought. All this is done in behalf of sick persons, or to redeem those who are confined in the infernal regions. When they go to war or on a plundering expedition, they offer prayers to Varangao, who is the rainbow, and to their gods, Ynaguinid and Macanduc. For the redemption of souls detained in the inferno above mentioned, they invoke also their ancestors, and the dead, claiming to see them and receive answers to their questions.
    Belief concerning the world.


    The god Macaptan.

    They believe that the world has no end. They say that Macaptan dwells highest in the sky. They consider him a bad god, because he sends disease and death among them, saying that because he has not eaten anything of this world, or drunk any pitarrillas, he does not love them, and so kills them.

    The god Lalahon.

    It is said that the divinity Lalahon dwells in a volcano in Negros island, whence she hurls fire. The volcano is about five leagues from the town of Arevalo. They invoke Lalahon for their harvest; when she does not choose to grant them good harvests she sends the locusts to destroy and consume the crops. This Lalahon is a woman.

  14. #54
    Infos from Svadhisthana

    Burials.

    These natives bury their dead in certain wooden coffins, in their own houses. They bury with the dead gold, cloth, and other valuable objects—saying that if they depart rich they will be well received in the other world, but coldly if they go poor.

    How they guard the dead.

    When anyone dies, the people light many fires near his house; and at night armed men go to act as sentinels about his coffin, for fear that the sorcerers (who are in this country also) may come and touch the coffin; for then the coffin would immediately burst open and a great stench issue from the corpse, which could not any longer remain in the coffin. For this reason they keep watch for several nights.

    Slaves killed at the death of chiefs.

    When any chief descended from Dumaguet dies, a slave is made to die by the same death as that of the chief. They choose the most wretched slave whom they can find, so that he may serve the chief in the other world. They always select for this a slave who is a foreigner, and not a native; for they really are not at all cruel. They say that the reason for their killing slaves, as we have said, at the death of any chief is very ancient. According to their story, a chief called Marapan more than ten thousand years ago, while easing his body asked a slave of his for some grass with which to clean himself. The slave threw to him a large stalk of reed-grass, which seems to have hit the chief on the knee, causing a wound. As he was at the time a very old man, he died, as they say, from the blow; but before his death he gave orders that, when he should die, the slave and all his children should be put to death. From this arose the custom of killing slaves at the death of a chief.

    Mourning indicated by fasting.

    When the father or mother or any near relative died, they promised to eat no rice until they should seize some captive in battle. The actual sign of mourning among them was the wearing of armlets made of bejucos [rattans] which covered the entire arm, with a similar band around the neck. They drank no pitarrilla, and their only food was bananas and camotes, until they had either taken a captive or killed some one, when they ceased their mourning; it might thus happen that they would eat no rice for a whole year, and therefore they would be, at the end of that period, very languid and weak. Sometimes a man determined, soon after a relative’s death, to eat nothing, but to abandon himself to death. But his timaguas and slaves quickly assembled, and made a collection throughout the village; bananas were given him for food, and tuba (which is a wine made from the palm-tree) for drink, so that he should not die. These gains were the perquisites of the chiefs. This kind of mourning is called among them maglahe.

    Mourning among the women.

    The mourning observed by the women they call morotal. It is similar to that of the men, except that the mourner—instead of going to capture or kill some one before she is allowed to cease mourning and to eat rice again—embarks in a barangay with many women; they have one Indian man to steer, one to bail, and one in the bow. These three Indians are always chosen as being very valiant men, who have achieved much success in war. Thus they go to a village of their friends, the three Indians singing all along the way, keeping time with their oars; they recount their exploits, the slaves whom they have captured, and the men whom they have killed in war. The vessel is laden with wine and pitarrillas. When they reach the village, they exchange invitations with the inhabitants, and hold a great revel. After this they lay aside their white robes, and strip the bejuco bands from their arms and necks; the mourning ends, and they begin to eat rice again, and to adorn themselves with gold.

    Larao of the dead—that is, mourning.

    One of the observances which is carried out with most rigor is that called larao. This rule requires that when a chief dies all must mourn him, and must observe the following restrictions: No one shall quarrel with any other during the time of mourning, and especially at the time of the burial. Spears must be carried point downward, and daggers be carried in the belt with hilt reversed. No gala or colored dress shall be worn during that time. There must be no singing on board a barangay when returning to the village, but strict silence is maintained. They make an enclosure around the house of the dead man; and if anyone, great or small, passes by and transgresses this bound, he shall be punished. In order that all men may know of a chief’s death and no one feign ignorance, one of the timaguas who is held in honor goes through the village and makes announcement of the mourning. He who transgresses the law must pay the penalty, without fail. If he who does this wrong be a slave—one of those who serve without the dwelling—and has not the means to pay, his owner pays for him; but the latter takes the slave to his own house, that he may serve him, and makes him an ayoey. They say that these rules were left to them by Lubluban and Panas. To some, especially to the religious, it has seemed as if they were too rigorous for these people; but they were general among chiefs, timaguas, and slaves.

  15. #55
    Infos from Svadhisthana

    Wars.

    The first man who waged war, according to their story, was Panas, the son of that Anoranor, who was grandson of the first human [parents:crossed out in MS.] beings. He declared war against Mañgaran, on account of an inheritance; and from that time date the first wars, because the people were divided into two factions, and hostility was handed down from father to son. They say that Panas was the first man to use weapons in fighting.

    Just wars.

    There are three cases in which these natives regard war as just. The first is when an Indian goes to another village and is there put to death without cause; the second, when their wives are stolen from them; and the third is when they go in friendly manner to trade at any village, and there, under the appearance of friendship, are wronged or maltreated.

    Laws.

    They say that the laws by which they have thus far been governed were left to them by Lubluban, the woman whom we have already mentioned. Of these laws only the chiefs are defenders and executors. There are no judges, although there are mediators who go from one party to another to bring about a reconciliation.
    Chapter Tenth
    Which treats of marriage customs in these islands



    Marriage of the chiefs.

    Great mistakes have been made regarding the marriages formed among the natives of this country since they have become Christians, because the marriage customs once observed among the natives have not been clearly understood. Therefore some religious join them in marriage, while others release them, and others reëstablish the marriage, thus creating great confusion. For this reason, I have diligently endeavored to bring to light the way in which they observed the marriage ceremonies, which are as follows. When any man wishes to marry, he, since the man always asks the woman, calls in certain timaguas who are respected in the village. (This is what the chiefs do. For there appear to be three ranks of men in these islands—namely, chiefs, timaguas, who are freemen, and slaves—each class having different marriage customs.) The chiefs, then, I say, send as go-betweens some of their timaguas, to negotiate the marriage. One of these men takes the young man’s lance from his father, and when he reaches the house of the girl’s father he thrusts the spear into the staircase of the house; and while he holds the lance thus, they invoke their gods and ancestors, requesting them to be propitious to this marriage. If the marriage takes place, the lance belongs to the go-between, or it is redeemed.

    After the marriage is agreed upon—that is to say, after fixing the amount of the dowry which the husband pays to the wife (which among the chiefs of these islands is generally the sum of one hundred taes, in gold, slaves, and jewels, and is equivalent to one hundred pesos)—they go to bring the bride from the house of her parents. One of the Indians takes her on his shoulders; and on arriving at the foot of the stairway to the bridegroom’s house, she affects coyness, and says that she will not enter. When many entreaties have proved useless, the father-in-law comes out and promises to give her a slave if she will go up. She mounts the staircase, for the slave; but when she reaches the top of the stairway and looks into her father-in-law’s house and sees the people assembled within, she again pretends to be bashful, and the father-in-law must give her another slave. After she has entered, the same thing takes place; and he must give her a jewel to make her sit down, another to make her begin to eat, and another before she will drink. While the betrothed pair are drinking together an old man rises, and in a loud voice calls all to silence, as he wishes to speak. He says: “So-and-so marries so-and-so, but on the condition that if the man should through dissolute conduct fail to support his wife, she will leave him, and shall not be obliged to return anything of the dowry that he has given her; and she shall have freedom and permission to marry another man. And therefore, should the woman betray her husband, he can take away the dowry that he gave her, leave her, and marry another woman. Be all of you witnesses for me to this compact.” When the old man has ended his speech, they take a dish filled with clean, uncooked rice, and an old woman comes and joins the hands of the pair, and lays them upon the rice. Then, holding their hands thus joined, she throws the rice over all those who are present at the banquet. Then the old woman gives a loud shout, and all answer her with a similar shout; and the marriage contract or ceremony is completed. Up to this time, her parents do not allow the young couple to eat or sleep together; but by performing this ceremony they deliver her up as his wife. But if, after the marriage contract has been negotiated by a third party, the man who seeks marriage should repent of the bargain and seek to marry another woman, he loses the earnest-money that he has given, even if he has had no intercourse with the former; because when they commence negotiations for the marriage they begin to give the dowry. If a man say in conversation, or at a drunken feast, “I wish to marry so-and-so, daughter of so-and-so,” and afterward break his promise and refuse to marry her, he is fined for it; and they take away a great part of his property.

    In regard to the dowry, neither the husband nor the wife can enjoy it until they have children; for until then it belongs to the father-in-law. If the bridegroom is not of age to marry, or the bride is too young, both still work in the house of the father-in-law until they are of age to live together.

    Marriage among the timaguas (timawas).

    The timaguas do not follow these usages, because they have no property of their own. They do not observe the ceremony of joining hands over the dish of rice, through respect for the chiefs; for that ceremony is for chiefs only. Their marriage is accomplished when the pair unite in drinking pitarrilla from the same cup. Then they give a shout, and all the guests depart; and they are considered as married, for they are not allowed to drink together until late at night. The same ceremony is observed by rich and respectable slaves.

    Marriage among the slaves.

    But the poor slaves, who serve in the houses, marry each other without drinking and without any go-between. They observe no ceremony, but simply say to each other, “Let us marry.” If a chief have a slave, one of his ayoiys, who serves in the house, and wishes to marry him to a female slave of the same class belonging to another chief, he sends an Indian woman as agent to the master of the female slave, saying that her master wishes to marry one of his male slaves to the other’s female slave. After the marriage has been arranged, he gives his slave an earthen jar, or three or four dishes, and there is no other ceremony. Half of the children born to this couple will belong to the master of the female slave, and the other half will belong to the master of the male slave. When the time comes when their children are able to work for their masters, the parents are made tumaranpoques, as we have said; because when a male slave of one chief marries the female slave of another chief, they immediately receive a house for their own use, and go out to work for their masters. If a freeman marries a female slave, or vice versa, half of the children are slaves. Thus, if there are two children, one is free and the other a slave, as the parents may choose.

    -Miguel de Loarca, Relacion de las Islas Filipinas

  16. #56
    Lesson no. 38 :Loarca, Hara and the Psychology of Obsession
    by: Prof Misskopinas

    Quote Originally Posted by misskopinas View Post
    Svad
    - Absolute gem in posting chapters of Loarca's ' Relacion de las Islas Filipinas'. This is an ethnographic account, meaning it is an observation by someone outside of the tribe via immersion. Therefore, some details will be a tad 'off' in the retelling (names of Gods, deities, rituals, places, for example) and the context of what is observed will be taken from Loarca's very Spanish (therefore Catholic) viewpoint as in the observation of certain lifestyle choices, practices and tendencies of the Pintados. Let this not be another narrow area for critics to exploit. Critics latch on to narrow and at times petty observations because of their very limited understanding of Anthropology. Loarca based his observations via his immersion as a Captain for the conquistador Miguel Lopez de Villalobos on the latter's intended expedition for China. But Loarca, a learned man also wanted to understand the peoples of the islands. Right away though we see that he does not see the Philippines as one nation yet - the Pintados were a separate 'people' from the people of Luzon. In Manila where they set up an administration center, Loarca set to work to do the very frist census of the country. He relates the differences between the Pintados and the other related inhabitants of what the Spanish claimed to be theirs - a set of Islands from Formosa (now Taiwan) to the edges of Visayas (Mindanao was yet contested ground due to the might of the influence of the Sultanates empowered by the Spice trade in the Indonesia archipelago contested by the Dutch, the Portuguese and the British - who held Bantam - from which the Sultanates drew canons and gunpowder). The Pintados in his work were compared to other inhabitants of the islands like the Sambals (of Zambales) and the inhabitants of the very North from Babuyan Islands to Vigan and Lawag. What is interesting is that in his observations of the people of Bolinao, Pangasinan, he related that they are a people of an organised economic system because they freely traded with the Chinese and the Japanese. They had a harbor na matatagpuan sa kasalukuyan sa Mangaldan, Pangasinan. In other words, bago pa man pumasok ang mga Espanyol, ang mga taga Liusong/Lazon, lalo na ang mga Pangasinense ay sanay na makipag-barter sa ibang lahi sapagkat kahit sila mismo ay umaalis sa harbor ng Mangaldan tungo sa mga isla ng Japan at iba-iba pang isla na sakop ng Timog-Silangang Asya ngayon. I also like the way you related the observation of Loarca in relation to the fair-complexions of the women of ancient Philippines. As always, even when fathers comitted infanticide due to the great difficulty in providing food for their children and in rearing them...they see their female daughters as commodities for trade. The fairer the girl, the more they can get in terms of dowry. Since the sun browned people working in the fields, a fair complexion can only be achieved by one who is either 'spared' from fieldwork and groomed for marriage. Thus, the practice of pagbukot or hiding of the fairest lass became a political (because they can be married off to other families of power and influence) as well as an economic (the dowry they command) necessity for some of the Datus and Rajahs in the islands.

    From here we can really see the folly of the claims of the critics of Amaya - they themselves have not truly read the ethnographic records of the early observers of the Philippines in the infancy stage of Spanish colonialization. I also liked your observation of the terminology of the Rahu/Raha becoming in the local tounge Hara. The Indian influence in SEA is very much apparent in the earliest customs due to the practice of Hinduism and the assimilated linguistic references. Consider this, Hara is derived from the Sanskrit avatar of Vishnu and Krishna which is Hari and is the 650th term of the name of Visnu in the Mahabharata - a sanskrit epic. Now, Avatar in Sanskrit/Dharmic literature refers to a descent or incarnation of a God or Deity from the Heavens to Earth. The Khmer for example believe that Suryavarman, the creator of the Angkor Empire who himself has the power of becoming a 'snake' (his Twin Soul is that of a powerful snake so he becomes his other self to reveal his power) is believed by his people as an Avatar of a god. Thus by calling people Hari - they are therefore the avatar or incarnation of the Gods on earth. Thus, Hara becomes the derivation of Hari and to this day in the Philippines we still refer to the King as Hari.Raja refers only to leaders of power without the divine strain of the Avatar but gifted, as believed by their people, of the power to rule over them. Continue your research my friend and keep on sharing them. The scholarly sharing we give in this thread provides an academic angle that counteracts the folly of the ignoble and the pretentious ignoramus.

    For More:
    http://www.elaput.org/loarca05.htm
    http://www.boholchronicle.com/2011/jan/2/opinion1.htm

    Newson, Linda (2009), Conquest and pestilence in the early Spanish Philippines, University of Hawaii Press.

    The Psychology of Obsession


    Why do people obsess? When people are obsessed, they are fixated. They cannot move beyond something until they achieve or are able to perform a particular act which will gratify them to eliminate the fixation. Obsession in small doses can be healthy. For example, when people are fixated with a TV show, they can achieve gratification after watching one episode to the next. If the purpose of obsession is healthy entertainment, then all is well. If you follow a TV show to its end and the conclusion is satisfactory to you, with a healthy viewer's attitude you can let go. You will have some questions, you will think but since it is already a done story, you will accept that it has ended and that your reactions are as they are - satisfied or unsatisfied. But, in some people, fixation can be very unhealthy. Who are these poor souls? Well, Freud said that dangerous obsession lies in people who have poor mental and emotional development. Freud says that in a particular stage of our life called the psychosocial development stage, we either pass through it gratified and healthy or stunted and even broken. Each human being is born into an instinctual libido or urge. When we are teenagers this rages and when we grew up in an environment that does not understand our urges or we are ill-equipped to be given certain gratifications, then we cannot truly explore and then understand our urges, who we are, right and wrong. Why? Because since that stage is broken, certain emotional and rational responses will also be absent or underdeveloped in us. Halimbawa lumaki ka sa isang bahay na problemado. Ang nanay at tatay mo parating nagaaway. Ang tatay mo lasenggero at ang nanay mo bugbog sarado. Wala silang pinagaralan. Ngayon sa eskuela mo compared sa mga kaklase mo ay hindi ka kagandahan at ang ugali mo ay hindi kaaya, aya. Walang kumakaibigan sayo, isa kang palaaway. Sa bahay walang kumakalinga sayo. Sa school kunti lang ang kakuentuhan mo at puro ka pa palpak sa pagaaral. What would be the natural reaction of your parents na themselves eh problemadong mga personalidad then sayo. Will you be praised, will you be loved? Who will love you among your peers because of your personality? None. Nobody will adore you or even fall in love with you if that is the case. Admiration is something that you loate. What then will be the most natural thing? You will be extremely jealous and unhappy when you see people loved, adored and given preferential treatment because of everything that you do not have. Since lumaki ka sa bahay na walang moral values, naturally hindi ka nabigyan ng magulang mo ng katalinuhan ukol sa tamang asal at pagiisip. Kaya walang preno kung ikaw ay magsalita, magakusa at magaway ng ibang tao sa tunay na buhay man o dito sa virtual world. Mas malakas nga lang mangaway ang mga tulad ng troll na si Jillian dito sa virtual world kasi unknown ang tunay niyang pagkatao. Mas mabangis ang pangaway, mas malala ang pangangailangan ng pagmamahal at pagkalinga sa tunay na buhay. From here we can make this generalization - si Jillian ay isang failed na tao sa larangan ng pagmamahal. Ginagawa niyang 'other' o oppositte niya si Marian. Bakit? Kasi ang inner psychology ni Jillian-troll ay nagnanais na pantayan ang lahat ng achievements ni Marian kaya fixated siya dito. Galit siya sa lahat ng kung anong meron si Marian na siya ay wala.

    Kagandahan, katanyagan, mga kaibigan, mga proyektong magagaling, ugaling makamasa, pamilyang nagmamahal, edukasyon but above and beyond that, the capacity of the actress in that despite her simplicity and she has achieved so much. The troll fixates on her because the troll believes that since 'I dont deserve it, since I am, in my mind better than her, then she doesn't deserve it'. How can she be better than MR, well obviously, she isnt but in her mind she is therefore the drive is that if she, jillian-troll, destroys MR to the people that enjoy her work and that respect her, then she will be gratified because then MR can be brought down to be just like her - unhappy, miserable, without success, unloved. The indication that the troll is unhappy, unloved and ugly is because if she wasn't, she would not be online fixated on destroying the reputation of MR. She will be out there, working perhaps, going on a date with loved ones, enjoying the feeling of being part of something, being loved and adored. The hate that the fixation creates grows over time and it can be quite deadly. Consider the obsessed unfans who try their best to harm in real life those who they fixate on. Charles Manson for example was obsessed with a producer and his house in 10050 Cielo Drive. Rejected as a singer, he became a hippie. His obsession with his rejection and failure spiralled into full-bown mental devolution which led to the murder of Sharon Tate and a few others. People like jillian-troll are very dangerous to themselves and to others. Marian must always be protected by those who are in charge of her safety and well-being. She needs trustworthy friends and a level-headed family to help keep a healthy perspective despite the obsession of unfans. As for the troll, the only way she can help herself is to see a psychiatrist. It doesnt matter whether or not the troll has a boyfriend, has achieved anything in life, etc. The broken psychosexual development will haunt the troll for the rest of its life. It doesnt matter whether or not it is MR the troll will obsess about. If MR retires, the troll will find somebody else. It will always feel misery and unhappiness that not even a good shag can take away. In otherwise, doomed na yan so kaawan at ipagdasal na lang.

    For more on Fixation:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixation_(psychology)
    http://psychology.about.com/od/theor...osexualdev.htm

    Misskopinas (info sharing mode)

    Much Love to Amaya...malapit na Babaylan stage pero I think parang Phoenix ang next stages and I have this feeling that Amaya will have to 'die' first....

  17. #57
    from Svadhisthana

    Quote Originally Posted by svadhisthana View Post
    highlight na yata ng babaylan phase ang ipinakita kahapon: ang pagbaba ni amaya sa sulad. sa katunayan, ito ang isa sa mga highlight sa buhay ni amaya bilang isang epic heroine, kasama ang pagkamatay ng kanyang ama. dahil dito, hindi ko maiwasang di magpost tungkol sa temang ito. i-multipost ko na lang, para paisa-isa at para humaba pa lalo ang ating thread...
    Descent to the underworld

    The descent to the underworld is a mytheme of comparative mythology found in a diverse number of religions from around the world, up to and including Christianity. The hero or upper-world deity journeys to the underworld or to the land of the dead and returns, often with a quest-object or a loved one, or with heightened knowledge. The ability to enter the realm of the dead while still alive, and to return, is a proof of the classical hero's exceptional status as more than mortal. A deity who returns from the underworld demonstrates eschatological themes such as the cyclical nature of time and existence, or the defeat of death and the possibility of immortality.

    ~wikipedia
    Katabasis

    Katabasis, or catabasis, (from Greek κατὰ, "down" βαίνω "go") is a descent of some type, such as moving downhill, or the sinking of the winds or sun, a military retreat, or a trip to the underworld or a trip from the interior of a country down to the coast. There exist multiple related meanings in poetry, rhetoric, and modern psychology.

    Katabasis is the epic convention of the hero's trip into the underworld. In Greek mythology, for example, Orpheus enters the underworld in order to bring Eurydice back to the world of the living. Most katabases take place in a supernatural underworld, such as Hades or Hell — as in Nekyia, the 11th book of the Odyssey, which describes the descent of Odysseus to the underworld. However, katabasis can also refer to a journey through other dystopic areas, like those Odysseus encounters on his 10-year journey back from Troy to Ithaca. Pilar Serrano allows the term katabasis to encompass brief or chronic stays in the underworld, including those of Lazarus and Castor and Pollux. In this case, however, the katabasis must be followed by an anabasis in order to be considered a true katabasis instead of a death.

    In modern psychology, the term katabasis is also sometimes used to describe the depression some young men experience.
    Descensus ad inferos (descent into hell)

    The Harrowing of Hell (Latin Descensus Christi ad Inferos "the descent of Christ into hell") is a doctrine in Christian theology referenced in the Apostles' Creed and the Athanasian Creed (Quicumque vult) that states that Jesus Christ "descended into Hell". The lack of explicit scriptural references to Christ's descent to the underworld has given rise to controversy and differing interpretations. As an image in Christian art, the harrowing is also known as the Anastasis (a Greek word for "resurrection"), considered a creation of Byzantine culture and first appearing in the West in the early 8th century.
    from Carl Jung:

    Night sea journey
    An archetypal motif in mythology, psychologically associated with depression and the loss of energy characteristic of neurosis.
    The night sea journey is a kind of descensus ad inferos–a descent into Hades and a journey to the land of ghosts somewhere beyond this world, beyond consciousness, hence an immersion in the unconscious.

    Mythologically, the night sea journey motif usually involves being swallowed by a dragon or sea monster. It is also represented by imprisonment or crucifixion, dismemberment or abduction, experiences traditionally weathered by sun-gods and heroes: Gilgamesh, Osiris, Christ, Dante, Odysseus, Aeneas. In the language of the mystics it is the dark night of the soul.

    Jung interpreted such legends symbolically, as illustrations of the regressive movement of energy in an outbreak of neurosis and its potential progression.

    The hero is the symbolical exponent of the movement of libido. Entry into the dragon is the regressive direction, and the journey to the East (the “night sea journey”) with its attendant events symbolizes the effort to adapt to the conditions of the psychic inner world. The complete swallowing up and disappearance of the hero in the belly of the dragon represents the complete withdrawal of interest from the outer world. The overcoming of the monster from within is the achievement of adaptation to the conditions of the inner world, and the emergence (“slipping out”) of the hero from the monster’s belly with the help of a bird, which happens at the moment of sunrise, symbolizes the recommencement of progression.

    All the night sea journey myths derive from the perceived behavior of the sun, which, in Jung’s lyrical image, “sails over the sea like an immortal god who every evening is immersed in the maternal waters and is born anew in the morning. The sun going down, analogous to the loss of energy in a depression, is the necessary prelude to rebirth. Cleansed in the healing waters (the unconscious), the sun (ego-consciousness) lives again.

    ~New York Association for Analytical Psychology
    from Joseph Campbell

    -Belly of the Whale (descent into the underworld) is one of the 17 stages undergone by the hero in what he terms as monomyth, the structural analysis of the life of a hero

    Belly of The Whale
    The belly of the whale represents the final separation from the hero's known world and self. By entering this stage, the person shows willingness to undergo a metamorphosis.

    Campbell: "The idea that the passage of the magical threshold is a transit into a sphere of rebirth is symbolized in the worldwide womb image of the belly of the whale. The hero, instead of conquering or conciliating the power of the threshold, is swallowed into the unknown and would appear to have died. This popular motif gives emphasis to the lesson that the passage of the threshold is a form of self-annihilation. Instead of passing outward, beyond the confines of the visible world, the hero goes inward, to be born again. The disappearance corresponds to the passing of a worshipper into a temple—where he is to be quickened by the recollection of who and what he is, namely dust and ashes unless immortal. The temple interior, the belly of the whale, and the heavenly land beyond, above, and below the confines of the world, are one and the same. That is why the approaches and entrances to temples are flanked and defended by colossal gargoyles: dragons, lions, devil-slayers with drawn swords, resentful dwarfs, winged bulls. The devotee at the moment of entry into a temple undergoes a metamorphosis. Once inside he may be said to have died to time and returned to the World Womb, the World Navel, the Earthly Paradise. Allegorically, then, the passage into a temple and the hero-dive through the jaws of the whale are identical adventures, both denoting in picture language, the life-centering, life-renewing act.
    both katabasis and carl jung's night sea journey is also identified with psychologic condition of depression and loss of energy, metaphorically, loss of consciousness or descent to the unknown.

    this is interesting because the precolonial Visayans made the same connection between the underworld and depression, from the word Sulad.

    Solad - depth, entrails, bottom of the earth. metaphorically, it means, to despair, to desire to die and commit suicide; to challenge someone to quit his life.

    ~Juan Felix de la Encarnacion, Diccionario Bisaya-Español

    Sulad - infierno (hell); Suladnon - infernal

    ~Antonio Sanchez de la Rosa, Diccionario Bisaya-Español para las provincias de Samar y Leyte

  18. #58
    AMAYA THEME RINGTONE
    shared by Mr. Von de Guzman

    here's the link:
    http://www.mediafire.com/?rn4ruhzyav6pch9

  19. #59
    Isang pagbubunyi! Maaari na kayong magpost subalit unahin munang tapusin ang ika-upat na banwa!


  20. #60
    Quote Originally Posted by lady_sujini View Post

    Sheila Rose Nuñez bilang batang Marikit
    si kate velarde po yan

    http://www.facebook.com/pages/Kate-V...13302175359842

    mali ang nakalagay dyan sa wikipedia.

  21. Jul 1, 2011, 10:05 PM

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