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  1. #1

    The Pinoy Chemical Exchange

    If you are a student,a professor/instructor,staff,research scientist or someone who's interested in talking about anything regarding chemical education and scholarships(undergraduate and graduate),chemical research,chemistry curricula and chemistry board exam performances of different universities,chemistry professors and instructors,social issues involving chemistry (e.g. melamine scare),etc., in the Philippines (or worldwide) , you are invited to post here.

    Please observe PEx rules on posting and treat each other with tact and respect.Different views on any topic will be anticipated AND everyone is encouraged to exchange opinions in a scholarly manner.

    Okey lang ang biruan.basta walang garapalan.No personal attacks.


    INITIATING PINOY CHEMICAL EXCHANGE.....

    exchange in progress...



  2. #2
    J. Nat. Prod. 2008, 71, 12131217

    Spheciosterol Sulfates, PKCζ Inhibitors from a Philippine Sponge Spheciospongia sp.

    Emily L. Whitson, Tim S. Bugni, Priya S. Chockalingam, Gisela P. Concepcion, Mary Kay Harper, Min He, John N. A. Hooper,⊥ Gina C. Mangalindan, Frank Ritacco, and Chris M. Ireland*

    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, Wyeth Research, Pearl River, New York 10965, Marine Science Institute, University of the Philippines, Diliman 1101, Quezon City, Philippines, and Queensland Museum, South Brisbane, Queensland 4101, Australia

    Received March 13, 2008

    Abstract:

    Three new sterol sulfates, spheciosterol sulfates A−C (1−3), and the known sterol sulfate topsentiasterol sulfate E (4) have been isolated from the sponge Spheciospongia sp., collected in the Philippines. Structures were assigned on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR studies as well as analysis by HRESIMS. Compounds 1−4 inhibited PKCζ with IC50 values of 1.59, 0.53, 0.11, and 1.21 μM, respectively. In a cell-based assay, 1−4 also inhibited NF-κB activation with EC50 values of 12−64 μM.

    http://i420.photobucket.com/albums/pp288/QuadruPaul/np-2008-001628_0003.gif

  3. #3
    mad 'bout shiri appleby cretinous00's Avatar
    Join Date
    Nov 2000
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    Q.C.
    all i can decypher from that abstract is that the sulfates were extracted from an endemic porifera

  4. #4
    hehe.read the next three sentences.it just says that structures we determined by NMR and High Resolution Electron Spray Ionization Mass Spec and that tests were performed indicating inhibition of a certain NF-KB,which is i think,related to diseases like cancer and AIDS.

    nakakatuwa lang kasi andaming nakukuhang potential drugs sa pilipinas dahil sa biodiversity ng mga bodies of water natin.kaya lang,pag nasa market na,di na natin nalalaman yang mga ganyang info.

    sana pag nakuha ang drug sa isang organism na natagpuan sa pinas,mayron tayong incentive.like,for example,mas mura ang benta sa atin,etc.

    musta naman ang melamine situation sa pinas?naging paranoid na ba lahat dyan pag bumibili ng dairy products?yung mga ice cream na binebenta sa kalsada,sure bang walang melamine ang gamit nilang gatas?

  5. #5
    mad 'bout shiri appleby cretinous00's Avatar
    Join Date
    Nov 2000
    Location
    Q.C.
    well, i wish more science-types would post here and really discuss chemistry. and i hope our sex-machine-of-a-moderator would delete any post that goes something like, "so why is philippine science lagging behind..." or worse, "so how does it advance the theory intelligent creation..."

  6. #6
    QuadruPaul, are you one of the authors of Spheciosterol Sulfates article? It's interesting. I remember one good professor from DLSU whose research concerns Natural Products. Her name is Dr. Ragasa. Anyway, sa'n kaya 'yan pina-NMR? Meron pa ba available machine dito Pilipinas.

    Siguro, it is also timely to discuss this issue of melamine (in a chemical terms perhaps). 'Di ako marunong magpost ng image but its structure can be drawn basing on its IUPAC name
    1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine. So parang benzene ring with alternating Carbon and Nitrogen members with an amino group (NH2) attached to each carbon members. So it's a six-nitrogen membered compound. Talagang makapagpapataas ng Nitrogen content in milk formulas but falsely cause protien content to appear higher. Naku, sana naman kung mandadaya 'yung mga chinese manufacturer, naglagay na lang sila ng eggpowder. Still, dapat 'di sila nandaya. Pati mga chemists ng BFAD naabala tuloy...though its their responsibility pala. Hehe.

  7. #7
    what's the tagalog term for Sponge Spheciospongia sp.?

    Hey would-be chemical exchangers, can you site specific applications of quantum chemistry and group theory? Pamatay talaga 'tong mga subjects na 'to. The math part is both challenging and interesting.

    QuadruPaul, I'm glad I've found this thread.

  8. #8
    Quote Originally Posted by cretinous00 View Post
    well, i wish more science-types would post here and really discuss chemistry. and i hope our sex-machine-of-a-moderator would delete any post that goes something like, "so why is philippine science lagging behind..." or worse, "so how does it advance the theory intelligent creation..."
    yeah.unfortunately,most of them are probably busy doing research and taking exams,etc. pero after nyan,dagsaan mga yan dito. i know some physics and math majors in PEx.

    Kuya Danny is a very good moderator,perhaps the best one for threads of this type.minsan,di maiiwasan ang nasty arguments about something pero as long as the discussion is relevant,di naman sya siguro basta basta magde-delete.(recall: chemistry board exam thread by exmindanaoan)

  9. #9
    Quote Originally Posted by bigbiceps View Post
    QuadruPaul, are you one of the authors of Spheciosterol Sulfates article? It's interesting. I remember one good professor from DLSU whose research concerns Natural Products. Her name is Dr. Ragasa. Anyway, sa'n kaya 'yan pina-NMR? Meron pa ba available machine dito Pilipinas.

    Siguro, it is also timely to discuss this issue of melamine (in a chemical terms perhaps). 'Di ako marunong magpost ng image but its structure can be drawn basing on its IUPAC name
    1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine. So parang benzene ring with alternating Carbon and Nitrogen members with an amino group (NH2) attached to each carbon members. So it's a six-nitrogen membered compound. Talagang makapagpapataas ng Nitrogen content in milk formulas but falsely cause protien content to appear higher. Naku, sana naman kung mandadaya 'yung mga chinese manufacturer, naglagay na lang sila ng eggpowder. Still, dapat 'di sila nandaya. Pati mga chemists ng BFAD naabala tuloy...though its their responsibility pala. Hehe.

    no,im not one of the authors.i think after nila makuha yung sponge,dinala na nila sa Utah for all tests.meron pa nga raw buhay na sponge dun eh. i heard of dr. ragasa.


    http://i420.photobucket.com/albums/pp288/QuadruPaul/280px-Melaminesvg.png

    at least dahil sa nangyari,people became more careful when buying products for consumption.the problem is that,kahit pala may approval ng BFAD,kung mali ang method ng analysis at di nadetect ang melamine,kawawa lang tayo at naloloko na di natin namamalayan.di ko alam ang situation,pero may standard method for testing ba?bakit ngayon lang?i'm sure ilang taon na nilang ginagawa to.ang laking responsibility ng chemists sa issue na to.

  10. #10

    Off Topic

    Quote Originally Posted by cretinous00 View Post
    well, i wish more science-types would post here and really discuss chemistry. and i hope our sex-machine-of-a-moderator would delete any post that goes something like, "so why is philippine science lagging behind..." or worse, "so how does it advance the theory intelligent creation..."
    The sex machine, having lived through the Marcos years, does not appreciate censorship and prefers to use as little of it as possible on the job. Admittedly, this preference sometimes results in noisy forums and undisciplined discussions, but this is the price we have to pay for the opportunity to improve our thinking.

  11. #11
    Quote Originally Posted by sunpower View Post
    what's the tagalog term for Sponge Spheciospongia sp.?

    Hey would-be chemical exchangers, can you site specific applications of quantum chemistry and group theory? Pamatay talaga 'tong mga subjects na 'to. The math part is both challenging and interesting.

    QuadruPaul, I'm glad I've found this thread.
    applications? determining number of IR bands for example.after mo madetermine ang point group ng molecule,get the reducible representation,depende kung aling vibrations sa molecule ang gusto mong tingnan.so may character kang idedetermine sa bawat symmetry class/operation sa character table for that point group.then from there,aalamin mo kung ilan ang bawat irreducible representation (A1,B1,Eu,etc) using a formula.from there malalaman mo na ang number of bands.pwede mo sya magamit para mai-compare ang two isomers.kasi usually,may pagkakaiba sa number of bands.marami pang applications.consult your inorganic or physical chemistry textbook.i like books by drago, atkins and cotton on this topic.

    kung walang quantum mechanics/chemistry, walang spectroscopy.sa quantum based ang halos lahat ng modern techniques natin.

    exciting ng chem,no? we owe a lot to the physicists,though.andami nilang nadiscover na naging useful sa chemistry.that's why bilib ako sa kanila. paging ubermensch.

  12. #12
    Quote Originally Posted by KuyaDanny View Post
    The sex machine, having lived through the Marcos years, does not appreciate censorship and prefers to use as little of it as possible on the job. Admittedly, this preference sometimes results in noisy forums and undisciplined discussions, but this is the price we have to pay for the opportunity to improve our thinking.
    i noticed that "relaxed" moderation,too and yeah,that sometimes results in unmanageable, noisy discussions,may name-calling na minsan, pero at least, a topic is thoroughly discussed,and you get to hear views on something na never mo pa naisip.natatawa na lang ako minsan.iba iba talaga ang tao.i call that PEx Education.

    haha aminado talagang sex machine eh.

  13. #13
    Biro lang ni cretinous yan. But if that's what he thinks I am, I will not disagree.

  14. #14
    http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/c...008/index.html


    http://www.latimes.com/features/heal...,3475865.story

    Three U.S.-based scientists share Nobel chemistry prize
    Nobel Prize for chemistry



    http://i420.photobucket.com/albums/pp288/QuadruPaul/42802937.jpg

    Photos by Associated Press

    Martin Chalfie of Columbia University, Osamu Shimomura of the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Mass., and Roger Y. Tsien of UC San Diego will share the 2008 Nobel Prize for chemistry.
    Roger Y. Tsien of UC San Diego, Martin Chalfie of Columbia University and researcher Osamu Shimomura developed a fluorescent protein from jellyfish that allows researchers to trace cell molecules.

    By Thomas H. Maugh II, Los Angeles Times Staff Writer
    October 9, 2008


    A UC San Diego pharmacologist and two other U.S.-based scientists won the 2008 Nobel Prize in Chemistry on Wednesday for their development of a green fluorescent protein from jellyfish that has provided researchers their first new window into the workings of the cell since the development of the microscope.

    Roger Y. Tsien, 56, of UC San Diego; Martin Chalfie, 61, of Columbia University; and Osamu Shimomura, 80, a Japanese-born researcher who works at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Mass., will share the $1.4-million prize for developing the protein that the Nobel committee called "a guiding star for biochemists, biologists, medical scientists and other researchers."

    The protein can be attached to any of the 10,000 individual molecules within a living cell, allowing researchers for the first time to trace their paths as they wind through the complex pathways of life.

    It is "an essential piece of the scientific toolbox," said Jeremy M. Berg, director of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, which has funded work by all three scientists. "It is impossible to overstate the impact of these investigators' work on scientific progress."

    In a hastily arranged news conference Wednesday morning, Chalfie said he had slept through early morning phone calls from Sweden and did not know about the prize until he woke up and checked his laptop.

    "It's not something out of the blue, but you never know when it's going to come or if it's going to come, so it's always a big surprise when it actually happens," he said.

    Shimomura told the Japanese broadcaster NHK that he was surprised to receive the chemistry Nobel "because I was rumored as a potential candidate for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine."

    In a telephone news conference, Tsien said he felt "a bit like a deer caught in the headlights. . . . Fundamentally, I'm no smarter today than I was yesterday."

    The story of the fluorescent protein starts with Shimomura. In 1953, he was hired as an assistant in the Nagoya University laboratory of biologist Yoshimasa Hirata, who assigned him to discover what made the remains of a crushed mollusk glow when it was moistened with sea water.

    Hirata had considered the project so difficult that he would not assign it to a graduate student for fear that its failure would prevent him from receiving his degree. But within three years, Shimomura had isolated the protein.

    When Shimomura was later recruited to join Frank Johnson at Princeton University, Hirata arranged for Nagoya to award him his doctorate, even though Shimomura was not enrolled as a student.

    In the summer of 1961, Shimomura and Johnson began collecting bioluminescent jellyfish in Friday Harbor in the San Juan Islands of Washington state, returning to Princeton with extracts from 10,000 of them.

    From this material, they isolated a blue luminescent protein called aequorin and a green fluorescent protein, commonly called GFP. In subsequent studies, Shimomura found that GFP absorbed ultraviolet light and emitted a green glow. What was revolutionary about the protein was that -- unlike, for example, the light-emitting chemicals in the firefly -- it did not require the addition of any chemical additives.

    In 1988, Chalfie heard about GFP and thought it would be useful for tracing the fate of proteins in the roundworm, Caenorhabditis elegans, which is widely used in biological studies because it is transparent, allowing researchers to study its organs under a microscope.

    When Douglas Prasher of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution isolated the gene for GFP, Chalfie assigned graduate student Ghia Euskirchen to insert the gene into the bacterium Escherichia coli. Within a month, she had produced a bacterium that glowed green.

    Next, Chalfie attached the gene to receptors in C. elegans that are involved in the sensation of touch. The cover of the journal Science in February 1994 showed a picture of the organism with the touch neurons glowing bright green.

    Tsien, who at age 16 won the prestigious Westinghouse Science Talent Search for a project that examined how metals bind to organic compounds, also received a copy of the gene from Prasher. He intended to use it as a marker as well, he said, but Chalfie beat him into print.

    Tsien's work with his colleague Susan Taylor required markers with two different colors, so he studied the color-producing part of GFP and devised ways to alter its gene to produce variants that glowed cyan, blue and yellow. Eventually, he and other researchers produced a family of proteins that glowed in a whole spectrum of colors, allowing researchers to follow the path of several different proteins simultaneously.

    Tsien is careful to note that he did not discover GFP or use it to make any groundbreaking biological discoveries. "I'm the guy who makes the tools," he said.

    One memorable experiment with the new technology tagged mouse brain proteins yellow, cyan and red, producing a mouse whose brain glowed in the colors of a rainbow -- a "brainbow," as it was tagged.

    Researchers have subsequently adapted the technology so that microorganisms will glow in the presence of heavy metals, explosives such as TNT and other chemicals, allowing the microorganisms to be used as sensors to find the materials in the environment.

    GFP is now used in some toys and even in art. In 2000, Chicago artist Eduardo Kac commissioned the creation of a green-glowing bunny named Alba.

    All the researchers thanked their colleagues, but Tsien went one step further and thanked the jellyfish as well. "None of this would have happened without the jellyfish," he said.

    But there still remains one major mystery, according to the Nobel committee: No one yet knows the purpose of the jellyfish's glow.

    thomas.maugh@latimes.com

  15. #15
    In reference to a post, there's an NMR machine in Schmitt Hall, Ateneo de Manila University. The machine in the next room after the NMR houses the mass spec. Hehe. Yeah, we were able to use both machines. NMR is really complicated to use...very very complicated.

    I guess its time to move beyond the normal Kjeldahl Nitrogen Analysis and use/discover a new method for amount of protein determination as is. This method, albeit powerful, has proven to have inadequacies as is and was taken advantage of unscrupulous people (clearly with a good understanding of how the Kjeldahl Nitrogen Analysis works and why Melamine was a good choice) for the milk crisis in China.

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  17. #16
    Quote Originally Posted by sunpower View Post
    Hey would-be chemical exchangers, can you site specific applications of quantum chemistry and group theory? Pamatay talaga 'tong mga subjects na 'to. The math part is both challenging and interesting.
    Group theory, as in, that group theory from math? O ibang group theory ito?

    Quote Originally Posted by QuadruPaul View Post
    yeah.unfortunately,most of them are probably busy doing research and taking exams,etc. pero after nyan,dagsaan mga yan dito. i know some physics and math majors in PEx.
    Tru dat!

    Quote Originally Posted by QuadruPaul View Post
    applications? determining number of IR bands for example.after mo madetermine ang point group ng molecule,get the reducible representation,depende kung aling vibrations sa molecule ang gusto mong tingnan.so may character kang idedetermine sa bawat symmetry class/operation sa character table for that point group.then from there,aalamin mo kung ilan ang bawat irreducible representation (A1,B1,Eu,etc) using a formula.from there malalaman mo na ang number of bands.pwede mo sya magamit para mai-compare ang two isomers.kasi usually,may pagkakaiba sa number of bands.marami pang applications.consult your inorganic or physical chemistry textbook.i like books by drago, atkins and cotton on this topic.

    kung walang quantum mechanics/chemistry, walang spectroscopy.sa quantum based ang halos lahat ng modern techniques natin.

    exciting ng chem,no? we owe a lot to the physicists,though.andami nilang nadiscover na naging useful sa chemistry.that's why bilib ako sa kanila. paging ubermensch.
    hehehe. if you're talking about physics, si physicist dapat ang pina-page mo

  18. #17
    i heard UPD's getting one NMR spectrometer,soon.problema yata kung sino magmi-maintain.unconfirmed. i think mas ok pa kung dagdagan na lang machines sa Ateneo.

    tama ka,they took advantage of the limitations of Kjehldahl.gawin na lang kayang first step sa nitrogen analysis ang making sure na wala munang melamine.kung meron,reject product,kung wala,mag kjeldahl.ano ba gamit nila pangdetect ng melamine?

  19. #18
    Quote Originally Posted by ubermensch View Post
    Group theory, as in, that group theory from math? O ibang group theory ito?

    Tru dat!


    hehehe. if you're talking about physics, si physicist dapat ang pina-page mo

    group theory ng math has applications in chemistry. may effect ang symmetry ng molecules sa itsura ng spectra nila.well, ayan na siguro reason kaya kita hinanap.hehe.

    busy nga lahat ng tao ngayon.may proposal ako due in two weeks and a seminar the week after.pang alis ng antok ang PEx pag nagbabasa ng journals.

    baka busy pa si physicist and illini.dadaan din mga yan soon.lalo na magwi-weekend.

  20. #19
    If that's true then it must have been the result of intensive lobbying by UP to obtain one...fat chance they're going to give another one to the Ateneo even if it makes better sense in the long run. UP Diliman has a bad record at maintaining scientific instruments.

    Even if they do that, people will still use another chemical filled with Nitrogen to fill in the gaps of their poor product. As long as people are willing to cheat and harm the public, they will still find ways of circumventing present methods.

    Quote Originally Posted by QuadruPaul View Post
    i heard UPD's getting one NMR spectrometer,soon.problema yata kung sino magmi-maintain.unconfirmed. i think mas ok pa kung dagdagan na lang machines sa Ateneo.

    tama ka,they took advantage of the limitations of Kjehldahl.gawin na lang kayang first step sa nitrogen analysis ang making sure na wala munang melamine.kung meron,reject product,kung wala,mag kjeldahl.ano ba gamit nila pangdetect ng melamine?

  21. #20
    Kumusta na yung agreements ng Big Three schools sa pag-a-upgrade ng kalidad ng science sa Pinas? Ba't hindi iyon e-strengthen para mas ma-enhance ang kalidad ng science sa bansa instead of competition. By strengthening means, any science student at UPd (any level -- undergrad, grad at postgrad) is allowed to enroll science subjects (cross enroll) at AdMU or DLSU and vice versa. ganyan diba sa ibang bansa, nagtutulongan at napakaganda ng bunga?

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